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Political Science
Political Science 2231E
Rado Dimitrov

Polisci 2231 Notes Prof Dimitrov Office hours: Topics - conflict in Syria - climate change - globalization - first term o current issues happening in internation relations  terrorism, syria o role of international relations - 2 term o theoritical approach to international relations Lecture 2- 18 Septembre World Powers - By territory ? - By Population ? (more people, bigger army) - By Economy ? o Absolute wealth ( o Relative wealth (GDP per capita) Define Power - What makes these nations so great ? o Best Health care ?  Countries are all about people – they need to be healthy o Best Education ?  Is it afforable ?  Is it broad ?  Is it focused on something ? o Innovation ?  Best cars ?  Environmental technology ? o Comfort for people ?  Transportations  All of the above regrouped ? o When we rank countries, what makes one better than the other one ?  It’s not about strength anymore  Power is the ability to provide the well being of your citizens in various aspects of their life - Great powers do matter o They have overwhelming military advantage o They can influence any other weaker country (post-colonialism)  The ability to influence other countries can be named power o Influence on global order and institutions - The Great War o Classic story of great powers competing  Casualties  10 million people  chemical weapons  Political effects  League of Nations o First modern experiment of creating a global world  Redrafted political map of europe - World War II o Causes of the war  Emperialist ambitions by Germany and Japan  Started as a war of conquest  Great depression  Nationalism created to give the people a hint of strenght  Isolationism o League of nations was a failure  US consulate did not accept, while president Wilson was a strong supporter o Casualties  53 Million… o Political Effects  US entered world politics  Happened when Japan struck Pearl Harbor  Redrafting of the global map of power  Went from a multi polar world to a bi-polar world o After second WW, two powers emerged  US  USSR  The United Nations - The Cold War (1950-1990)  Proxi wars (using puppets to fight for yourself – one colony vs another) o Nuclear deterence o Spheres of influence  Divided into 2 o Détente  Introduced by Henry Kissinger – foreign minister, secretary of state  Restrain power and impose cooperation  Try to calm war without weapons and ‘fistfights’  War was at its end in Soviet Union because of domestic changes by Gorbachev o The fall of the Berlin Wall 1989 o Cold war changes bipolarity into unipolarity – no more USSR, only US - Balance of Power o Bipolar System – 2 strong powers o Multipolarity – balance of power is equal everywhere o Unipolarity  Hegemony – must be motivated to be involved in world politics for it to be a hegemony - The rise of the rest ? o Asian economic growth o The Chinese Economy - Shifting balance of power o Unipolarity unlikely to endure o Distribution of power shifting away from US dominance - The Rise of China o « the rise of China is less the result of its increased military strength than the US’ declining competitive position » o The return of China, not its rise - The US-China relations o Economic relations  Very linked to each other  Most things bought in America – made in China o Perception of ‘‘the other’’ o The stakes : expected reults of a conflict - The role of choice o Confrontation can be avoided o ‘‘the key decision facing both Beijing and Washington is whether to move toward a genuine effort at cooperation or fall into historic patterns of international rivalry TUTORIAL 1 – 18 SEPTEMBRE Bjørnar Egede-Nissen [email protected] office hours : Wed 13 :30 to 14 :30 in SSC 4208 Lecture 3 – September 25 International Organizations Nonstate actors - IGOs o Intergovernmental Organizations  UN, WTO (global), OAS, EU, ECOWAS (regional), Crossregional (OPEC, ITTO), General (ASEAN), Specialized (APEC, NATO, Int’l telecommunications satellite Org., Interpol) o An institution created by an international agreement that has permanent headquarters and staff, clearly defined mandate and rules, an voluntary state membership  Only governments can be members (ethnic groups inflicted)  States that join them do it voluntarily  EVERY NATION THAT JOINS NEEDS TO BEND TO THE IGO’S RULES o 293 IGOs o What do they do ?  Platforms for signing treaties  Stable negotiating forum  Main purpose – tools to facilitate cooperation among states  Don’t tell states to negotiate/cooperate. States decide themselves  If the state decides that for its own sake, it needs to negotiate, then, they go and sign an international treaty forcing them to play by the rules  IGOs and burden sharing  International Monetary Fund o Deals with countries in microeconomic problems and helps them to get back to stability  Clean up the sea (all countries that have seaside are afflicted by polution, so they join the IGO and agree with nearby countries  Efficient problem solving  WHO’s smallpox campaign  UN  a very extensive framework  Members  5 or 6 principle organs o General Assembly  Quasi-legislative  Ultimately non-binding  Only place where everybody contributes to decisions  Generate studies on certain world problem, and create policies  Investigative  Budget Role on the whole organization is decided there (recommended in security council, GA only approves it)  Security maintenance  1950 “United for Peace“ resolution  most democratic part of UN – all votes are weighted the same  G-77 – negotiating as groups and not only states (UN)  Strength in unity  Nothing can pass without the South  A two-thirds votes may represent 15 percent of world population o The Security Council  The “executive body“ of the UN  Strictly security issues  Voting rules – only 15 members  If any of P-5 (permanent members) vote against something, they veto o Internation Court of Justice  Separate body from ICC  Gives advisory opinions – legal advice  Consider cases brought by states against states  Grants advisory opinion to other agencies  Consists of 15 judges – no 2 judges from same country  On average it takes 33 months to take a decision o Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)  Membership and structure  54 member states  each elected for 3 years  considers anything with economic and social issues including environment  mandate is very broad  limited power – cannot pass any treaty, any law  A lot of it has to do with generating information  Real work is done by specialized agencies under the umbrella of ECOSOC o 18 organizations o Food and Agriculture organization (FAO) o UNESCO o IMF o World Health organization o World meteorological Organization o 5 autonomous IGOs : International Atomic Energy Agency, …  Secreteriat  Bureaucrats  Organize all decisions made  Head secretary’s office  Power in UN politics o The UN as a tool of great powers o No independent UN capacity for coercion o The UN has the authority to recomment and implement policy o Budget restrained o UN power function of state power, no power for the organization except for influencing states with recomendations o Collective legitimation  Specialized agencies o World Health Organization  Affiliated autonomous IGOs o World Bank, IMF  Affiliated NGOs o 4000-5000 associated with UN - NGOs o Non-Governmental Organizations o A transnational organization of private citizens pursuing policy goals in a particular issue area – Red Cross, Greenpeace, … 82'000 more or less - MNCs o Multi-national Corporations  Some companies have more money than states, which can give them a lot of power internationally - Nonstate nations o Ethnicities – ethnic minorities  Not just small nation – kurdes (Iranian ethnic group without a state)  There are far fewer nations than there are ethnicities – more or less 5000 ethnic groups - Mafia o Russian – biggest one o Italian o Yakuza – Japan Tutorial 2 – September 25 - 8 journal entries due November 6 - 2/3 summary, 1/3 opinion - citation – as in example on syllabus Topic : International organizations - What Multilateralism Lecture 4 – October 2 nd The World Bank - World Bank Group o Created at the same time as the UN o Main purpose at the time was to help countries reconstruct after WWII o Help them regardless of whether they were friends or enemies - Four different functions o I
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