October 2, 2013
The World Bank
- After the War Europe was not in a good shape and the US decided to help
countries in Europe with loaning them money.
- US donated a lot of money in the beginning to kick-start the World Bank, a UN
- International Development Agency: focuses on the poorest countries
- Third section that helps out private corporations
- Fourth section allows private investors to help out countries etc..
- Gives out loans, repayment period is typically longer
- Cannot rob the World Bank, no money in the bank per say, all done between
private entities and countries through computers.
- The World Bank was never just about loans but also helps sustain development
in countries and support initiatives against climate change etc..
- Evolved over time to become more than loaning money to European countries.
- Offices in hundred countries around the world, with a diverse staff. New boss of
the World Bank is from China. Most of the executives are from the developing
world, not all controlled by the developed countries like some IGOs.
- Every country puts money in and any country can withdraw an amount of money
to help them at any time, acts as a trust fund for the world.
- IMF and The World Bank
- The World Bank allows for any country to withdraw money while the IMF only
allows countries in crisis with a dire need for money to withdraw money.
- IMF restores financial stability
- The World Bank exists to support economic development on a day to day basis.
- Developed countries support both organizations, and decisions are based on
weighted voting. Whoever contributes the most money gets the largest vote and
- Structural adjustment programs: conditions that the organizations can make the
recipient country do in order to be given the money.
The International Criminal Court
- Not a part of the UN system, a separate international institution, not ton be
confused with the International Court of Justice which focuses on disagreements
- Created to deal with terrible acts by human beings onto other human beings on
a large scale. Response to terrible tragedies such as the Rwanda genocide in
- International justice was needed, could not rely on domestic legal system, most
of the time they did not respond. - Ad hoc tribunals: this worked but a more stable international court was needed
without Security Council vote (security council could be involved in the crime and
could veto the tribunal).
- 1994 International Law Commission Draft: treaty of the ICC
- Negotiations between 1996 and 1998 took place and a better treaty was
established in the end.
Negotiations were heated debates because of several issues:
- Types of crime: proposals included terrorism and WMDs, drug trafficking etc..
- Jurisdiction and state consent: United States did not want a court that could
prosecute citizens of a state without state approval, European countries thought
- Trigger mechanism: who can start the prosecution, who decides who is
- Scope of prosecutor’s authority: what is the role of the independent prosecutor
and how to stop political motives.
- 120 countries voted for the establishment of the court with 21 abstentions and 7
countries who voted against the ICC; China, Iraq, Israel, Libya, Qatar, USA, and
- 1998 Rome Statute established the ICC.
- Surprisingly the ICC had a overwhelming majority vote, and the treaty was
ratified in record time in less than four years, at least 80 countries had to ratify
the treaty for it to come into force.
Rome Statute 1998
- Established the ICC to address four types of crime:
War crimes (includes child soldiers)
Crimes against humanity (includes apartheid, sexual slavery etc..)
Aggression (undefined, recently a conference took place to define
aggression but nothing has been decided)
- Any country can opt out of any definition, so a country that disagrees with one of
the crimes covered cannot be bound by that crime and persecuted for it. So
countries that have joined actually have more power to escape persecution than
countries that have not joined.
- New types of war crimes officially recognized
- Internal conflict included, civil war crimes are now included in international law.
- Key Provisions
- Universal Jurisdiction: article 27 applies to any human being no matter who they
are (presidents and prime ministers