September 30, 2013
Government Shutdown = Spending is shut down (until the budget is approved).
NORAD Black Panther Party
Formed in 1958 to replace Black revolutionary socialist
CONAD. organization (1966-1982).
Purpose: Conduct aerospace Protecting black neighbourhoods
warning, control, and air law from police brutality.
enforcement. Began with black nationalism, but
3 Regions eventually separated and caused
Alaska, Canadian, and Continental turmoil.
US (two sub-regions in United minority groups
Washington and Florida). There (everything from Marxism, race,
is also a base in Washington DC workers unions, etc.) to promote
for the Capital. equality; socialist party.
Vital in deterring Cold War
10 Point Program (listed agreed-
attacks. upon demands).
Now perform counter-drug Started in Oakland and spread
operations. Post-911 now across the states.
includes monitoring within the By 1968 deemed a threat to
continent (not just things
entering). Things that hurt the movement:
NORAD tracks Santa every year Provoked and unprovoked
(manned by volunteers). shootouts.
Decline – internal disputes and
corruption (including money
Pros: More black police officers
were hired, and more social
services were created to better
and equalize black communities.
A system of government in which power is shared among different levels of
government (E.g. at the national, state, and local levels).
Central Government State Layer Local (counties, cities).
o It’s about power, fairness, democracy, and effective government.
Sovereign units (e.g. states, countries, planets).
Neither listed below were appealing to the founding fathers. The second option was
something they had already tried. They decided on Federalism (like hybrid of the two: stronger central merged with member units of confederation). Even though each level
is independent, their powers overlap.
o Strong central government
o National policies (or “decrees”)
o State = administrative arm
o Member units
o Weak central government
o Common purpose: International objectives (defense) or commerce.
Cities, counties, etc. – don’t have any power. The state gives them their power –
how much they have is up to the state.
“Creatures of the state.”
State grants power.
When the power belongs to the local, it’s called home rule.
Efficiency = strong central gov’t.
Liberty = weak central government.
o Thus, crux of debate is balance between effective government and
Pros and Cons
o More protection for Individual Rights
If mom says no, then try asking Dad.
E.g. NAACP – Started with the state and went to the national
If the national level doesn’t respond to your complaints, go the
state or vice versa.
o Protection Against Dangerous Leaders
Multiple checks at multiple layers.
o Fosters Political Innovation
“Laboratories of democracy” - test policies, other states will
follow if it is successful in another.
Diffusion – When a policy is successful and tried in other states
(e.g. womens suffrage, alcohol prohibition).
California (minimum wage increase).
Colorado, Washington State (legalization of marijuana).
o More Responsive to Citizen’s Needs Diversity
Match policy to local needs.
Avoids “one size fits all.”
o More Choices
Different costs and services
It’s like shopping
Certain states have different policies and emphaises (more
appealing to different types of citizens).
o Coordination Problems
Among the different levels.
Too many cooks in the kitchen.
Marijuana state police could not ticket you for smoking
marijuana, but the FBI could (not anymore).
Especially during emergencies.
o Poor Policies
Too much diversity
Standardized the “best”
Some things require one, national policy.
o Leads to inequities
E.g. Capital punishment.
Differences in law
Minimum wage – why is it fair for some citizens to get paid