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September 30, 2013 - Federalism.docx

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Political Science
Political Science 2244E
Peter Scapillato

Federalism September 30, 2013 * Government Shutdown = Spending is shut down (until the budget is approved). American Profiles NORAD Black Panther Party  Formed in 1958 to replace  Black revolutionary socialist CONAD. organization (1966-1982).  Purpose: Conduct aerospace  Protecting black neighbourhoods warning, control, and air law from police brutality. enforcement.  Began with black nationalism, but  3 Regions eventually separated and caused Alaska, Canadian, and Continental turmoil. US (two sub-regions in  United minority groups Washington and Florida). There (everything from Marxism, race, is also a base in Washington DC workers unions, etc.) to promote for the Capital. equality; socialist party.  Vital in deterring Cold War  10 Point Program (listed agreed- attacks. upon demands).  Now perform counter-drug  Started in Oakland and spread operations. Post-911 now across the states. includes monitoring within the  By 1968 deemed a threat to continent (not just things national security. entering).  Things that hurt the movement:  NORAD tracks Santa every year Provoked and unprovoked (manned by volunteers). shootouts.  Decline – internal disputes and corruption (including money embezzling).  Pros: More black police officers were hired, and more social services were created to better and equalize black communities. What’s Federalism  A system of government in which power is shared among different levels of government (E.g. at the national, state, and local levels). Central Government  State Layer  Local (counties, cities). o It’s about power, fairness, democracy, and effective government.  Sovereign units (e.g. states, countries, planets). Why Neither listed below were appealing to the founding fathers. The second option was something they had already tried. They decided on Federalism (like hybrid of the two: stronger central merged with member units of confederation). Even though each level is independent, their powers overlap.  Unitary government o Strong central government o National policies (or “decrees”) o State = administrative arm  Confederation o Member units o Weak central government o Common purpose: International objectives (defense) or commerce. Local Governments:  Cities, counties, etc. – don’t have any power. The state gives them their power – how much they have is up to the state.  “Creatures of the state.”  State grants power.  When the power belongs to the local, it’s called home rule.  Underlying Themes o Federalists  Efficiency = strong central gov’t. o Anti-federalists  Liberty = weak central government. o Thus, crux of debate is balance between effective government and liberty. Pros and Cons  Pros o More protection for Individual Rights  If mom says no, then try asking Dad.  E.g. NAACP – Started with the state and went to the national level.  If the national level doesn’t respond to your complaints, go the state or vice versa. o Protection Against Dangerous Leaders  Multiple checks at multiple layers. o Fosters Political Innovation  “Laboratories of democracy” - test policies, other states will follow if it is successful in another.  Diffusion – When a policy is successful and tried in other states (e.g. womens suffrage, alcohol prohibition).  California (minimum wage increase).  Colorado, Washington State (legalization of marijuana). o More Responsive to Citizen’s Needs  Diversity  Match policy to local needs.  Avoids “one size fits all.” o More Choices  Different costs and services  It’s like shopping  Certain states have different policies and emphaises (more appealing to different types of citizens).  Cons o Coordination Problems  Among the different levels.  Too many cooks in the kitchen.  Marijuana state police could not ticket you for smoking marijuana, but the FBI could (not anymore).  Especially during emergencies. o Poor Policies  Too much diversity  Unitary government  Standardized the “best”  Some things require one, national policy. o Leads to inequities  E.g. Capital punishment.  Across levels  Differences in law  Minimum wage – why is it fair for some citizens to get paid
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