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Western University
Political Science
Political Science 2246E
Ross Gibbons

Lecture 1 Federalism Control and Coordination Control and Coordination in federalismCanadian governments face complex control and coordination problemsOrganizational form is a strategic choice by government of how a function will be carried out and by whomA department provides the most direct political controlCentral agencies control and coordinate the other departments of governmentFederalism and AdministrationPublic enterpriseregulatory agencies may be preferred due to their arms length isolation form accountability and Parliamentary responsibilityPolitics and comprehensive rationality are factors in the choiceNew public managementoConsidering the use of privatization oContracting outoPrivate Public PartnershipFederalism and the FutureFederalism cooperative completive contested the futureCoordination and control are important challenges for every complex organizationConstitution distribution of powers in 1867 could not and did not anticipate challengesoTechnologyoSocial oEconomic oPolitical lifeFederal Provincial relationsRelations between the federal and provincial government have passed through a number of distinct periods since 1945 oCooperative federalismoCompetitive federalismoContested federalismoHarpers open federalism oFuture federalism deeper or simplerCooperative federalismperiod leading up to the late 1970s federal governmentaka the fedsprovided money for a broad array of programsProvinces developed administered the programs more or less according to federal guidelinesperiod of Competitive Federalism followedCivil servants continued to deal with the complexities of hundreds of federalprovincial programsContested Federalismsince Meech Lake 1987 and the 1992 Charlottetown Referendum federalism itself has been under attacka failed attempt by Quebec sovereigntists in 1995premiers of nine provinces met in 1997Qubecs Lucien Bouchard was absent in Calgaryproposed a new framework for Canadian unityCalgary declarationall provinces while diverse possessed equality of statusrecognized the unique character of Qubec societyincluding culture and tradition of civil lawall provincial legislatures with the exception of Qubec endorsed the declarationThe Legal Solutionsovereigntyseparation issuebrought before the courtscase launched in Qubec to determine the legality of the separation of a provinceThe Supreme Court of Canada held that separation apart from the possibility of formal constitutional amendment was illegal under both domestic Canadian and public international lawthe Court also recognized that if a clear majority of Quebeckers voted in favour of separation in a referendum based on a clear question then there was an obligation for the federal and provincial governments to engage in negotiations in good faith on the issue of separationCalgary and Beyondturmoil in Ottawa and provincial capitals across the countrypublic administrators continue to toil arranging formal conferences to discuss federalprovincial matters and exchanging information and ideas informally on a daytoday basisFuture federalism deeper OpenThe FutureoDeepening federalism Martin Layton and the cities agendaoOpen federalismSimplifying federalism Harper and Quebec In summaryolike much political conflict federal provincial relations focus around who will pay for programs and who will get credit for themFederalism The Executive and the legislatureParliamentary and ExtraParliamentary ActorsProblem of Control and Coordinationcontrol problem bureaucratic powercoordination problem oavoiding duplicationoinefficiencyowasteocounterproductive measuresParliamentary Actorsthe executiveoPrime Minister and Cabinetokey decisions makersoinitiate policy making and legislation
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