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Chapter 11- Counterproductive Behave.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2060
Irene Cheung

Chapter 11: Counterproductive Work Behaviour  Job performance composed of: task, contextual, counterproductive behaviours  Counterproductive work behaviours (CWBs): voluntary behaviours violate organizational norms, threaten well being of organization and members( physical & psychological)  withdrawl from job most negative: resignation or partial withdrawl (tardiness), absenteeism, leaving early, extended breaks  employees who cant withdrawl lash out  violence given rise going postal (postal worker kill him and 1 other)  violence, abuse, sabotage - to anger & stress  withdrawl - boredem and upset  workplace homocides = 631 deaths  productivity: end result complex interaction of task, contextual counterproductive behaviours  contextual behaviour lead to increase in productivity influenced by task behaviour, counterproductive behaviours detract from it Types of Counterproductive Work Behaviours  Tardiness: being late  Absence  Voluntary turnover  Workplace deviance: voluntary violation of significant organizational norms in a way that threatens the well-being of the organization, coworkers, or both ; psychological aggression & physical violence Withdrawal behaviours Tardiness:  20% late 1 day per week, 12% late 2 days week  traffic, lack of sleep , children’s issue, transportation wardrobe, pets  lateness cost US business over 3$ billion per year  individuals who are late tend to take unscheduled absence and negative view on organization Absenteeism:  short-term nature 1-3 days, employees don’t show up when scheduled and calls excuse being ill  5.3 unscheduled absence per year  causes : some are prone to be absent  negative affectivity , experience emotional state where absent coping strategy  low conscientious away more than high variable employee  seen more blue collar jobs  extroversion positively related to absent  openness to experience positively related to absent  agreeableness negatively associated  Darviri and Woods: employees who are outgoing and seek new experiences while not concerned how others view them take absences  Darviri and Woods did not find correlation with conscientiousness unlike Conte and Jacobs  alcohol consumption- relationship poorly understood Reason for inconsistency in results: 1. relationship b/w alcohol consumption & absenteeism assumed to be due to amount of alcohol consumed and not way consumed 2. impact of alcohol consumption on absent moderate by workplace conditions  absent and work strain  organizational norms Presenteeism:  measure of lost productivity that occurs when employees show up for work but are not fully engaged in their jobs because of personal health and life issues To prevent:  reward people for work they deliver, not hours  not feel obligated to work long hours  shouldn’t work long hours to show commitment, if genuinely sick workers feel should take time off work for everyone’s benefit  tackling presenteeism significant opportunity to reduce cost and improve productivity Voluntary Turnover:  most extreme  withdrawls completely from organization  replaced, incurring, recruiting, selection, training costs  drop-off in productivity while new replacement is being brought up to speed  some may be desirable, key find right level of acceptable turnover  more impotant isn’t how many people leaving, but who  best predictor of turnover is an individuals degree of absenteeism Workplace Deviance : Psychological withdrawl:  production deviance: passive acts of an employee directed against organization  employees withhold effort and don’t perform fullest  job dissatisfaction and frustration Workplace property deviance:  designed to sabotage or damage organizations property Reasons: 1. powerlessness or lack of autonomy: destructiveness provides employee with control 2. organizational frustration: emotional state lead to destruction of property 3. facilitation of work: goal make work easier accomplish , change procedure/ use inappropriate tools get job done 4. bordom/fun: 5. injustice: treated unfairly, attempt to even score Minor: political deviance (interpersonal) Production deviance ( organizational) Serious: personal aggression (interpersonal) Property deviance ( organizational)  employee theft: goal not to destroy but to steal organizational property , money for oneself Interpersonal Workplace Deviance Workplace aggression and violence: psychological aggression & physical violence  41% experienced psychological aggression (15million weekly basis)  6% physical violence  workers prone to aggression are 18-30 job for 1-3 years  professional workers and service workers greatest amount of aggression  social workers, therapists, doctors, police security, health care, nursing  all workers who have exposure to people under drugs or medication or psychiatric problems  violence social assistance or health care  physical assaults 71%  workplace violence against men more likely reported to police than women ( 57 vs 20)  Ontario government legislation (2009): develop and communicate workplace violent and harassment prevention policies and programs, o Assess risk of workplace violence and take precautions protect workers o Allow workers to remove themselves from harmful situations Bullying: offensive, intimidating, malicious or insulting behaviour abuse or misuse of power through means intended to undermined, humiliate, denigrate, injure intended victim of bullying  Flame mail: bullying through email  Poor moreal and poor employee relations  Loss of respect for managers  Poor performance  Lost productivity  Absence  Resignations  Damage to company  More success of who does the bullying  Most of the time bullied by person with authority or coworker rarely is boss bullied by subordinate Reasons for bullying:  Predatory bullying: less freq, singling out based on prejudice  Dispute bullying: interaction between bully and victim each provokes the other  Most successful intervention is zero tolerance , stop before begins Psychological Harassment: any vexatious behaviour in form of repeated and hostile / unwanted conduct, verbal comments, actions or gestures that affects an employees dignity / psychological or physical integrity that results in harmful work environment  Bullying is a type  Quebec first jurisdiction in NA to prohibit psychological harassment –Quebec Labour Standards Act  Every employee has right to work environment free from psychological harassment o Rude, degrading offensive marks o Gestures seek intimidate o Discrediting person o Belittling person o Isolating Predicting Counterproductive Work Behaviours  Li
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