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Chapter 12.docx

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Psychology 2060
Irene Cheung

Chapter 12- Occupational Health Psychology  Improvement of work life the protection and safety of workers and promotion of healthy work  Occupational health psychology (OHP): uses of psychology at work to improve work life to ensure the protection and safety of workers and to promote healthy work o how workplace practices and policies supervision and leadership affect employees physical and psychological well being o promoting and protecting the psychological and physical health of workers themselves, through preventions and job design Occupational health and safety (OHS): identifying , evaluating and controlling both the physical and psychological hazards in work environment Health and Safety Legislation in Canada  statutes legal foundation which employers must comply  regulations employer must do in order to comply with law Who is responsible for employee health and safety ? 1. employers, owners and contractors 2. supervisors 3. workers 4. joing health and safety committees  employers must take precautions to ensure safety of employees , some jurisdiction not in effect because other compensation legislation surpasses it Employers, Owners and Contractors  administrative structure of health and safety  enforcement, education and compensation  supervision, education, training, written instruction Employer health and safety responsibilities for Ontario  ensure necessary equipment provided and maintained  supervisor is competent  information including confidental in emergency  advise of work hazards  post occupational health and safety act  prepare and maintain policy and review annually Supervisors : any person in charge of workplace and authority over worker  ensure workers under supervision comply with OH&S Act  ensure workers use safety equipment devices clothing  advise workers possible hazards  provides written instructions to workers  take every reasonable precaution to sure protection Workers:  comply with OH&S act  properly use safety equip and clothes  report hazards to supervisors  ensure don’t use any hazardous equip in unsafe conditions or make safety device ineffective  act in safe manner and avoid engaging in rough/boisterous behaviour  report any contraventions of act Join Health and Safety Committees  required by law for certain workplace in 9 provices  other 4 provinces minister responsible  provide non adversial atmosphere which labour and management can work together to create safer healthier workplace  must train at least one management and one worker on topics: law, general safety, hygiene, indoor air quality, chemical safety, certified workers right, joint committees  involved in inspections, work refusals, investigation Job Stress  external pressures, personal reactions and outcomes  process which we have affective reaction to job demands  occupational stress leading cause of workplace death “epidemic” 12 billion annually Job Stress Models: Common Themes  identify stimuli damage some way  stimulus potential trigger set of psychological responses impact well being  moderators or buffers moderate relationship between stimuli and stress outcome  perception cognition play important role how appraise stimuli Classify stress responses: physiological, psychological, behavioural outcomes: Physiological outcomes: cardiovascular, biochemical measures , gastrotenstinal Psychological outcomes: job dissatisfaction, depression, anxiety, frustration, hostility Behavioural outcomes: degradation, disruption of work role itself in terms of job performance, accidents, alcohol or drug use at work, absenteeism, turnover 6 stress models: 1. transactional stress model: applied to work context, emphasizes importance of individual perception in stress process 2. conservation of resources model: stress results from losing valued resources 3. person-job fit model: misfit between individual and job can create stress 4. job demand – job control model: job stress results when workers experience high demands and low degress of control 5. effort reward imbalance model: imbalance between efforts workers put into job and rewards earned may create individual strain 6. job demands resources model: demands faced by employees and resources have impact on employees Transactional Stress model: prominent general stress models, if you appraise external stimuli (stressors) as potentially threatening you may perceive them as stressful (perceived stress) if you then appraise your coping resources as inadequate you may experience strain (negative psychological behavioural and physical outcomes) Stressors: stimuli in environment (events, situations) potentially threatening Primary appraisal: process which perceive stressor demand to be negative (stressful), positive (challenge) or benign (no effect) Perceived stress: perception about extent which you perceive a demand or stressor to be stressful Secondary appraisal: process which you appraise your coping resources ( social support) Strain outcomes: occur in form of psychological strain (depression, anxiety) physiological strain (increased blood pressure) or behavioural (smoking) The Conservation of Resources Theory ( COR): individuals strive to obtain and maintain resources they value Resources: objects, personal characteristics, conditions, or energies that valued by individuals or serve as means for attainment  high self esteem, good job  negative outcomes (stain) can occur when lose their resources and unable to restore them  negative health outcomes not only occur when loss in resources but when perceive threates to resources  employees perception of work environment are important to understand Person- Environment Fit Theory : identifies how negative outcomes may develop if there is incongruity between employees and their work environment in terms of mismatch between job requirements and employees abilities or between the needs of employee and what organization provide them  to ensure fit, must hire right type of people, proper training and development of opportunities Job Demands-Job Control Model: high mental strain and job dissatisfaction will result if employees face high job demands yet have little control over work Effort Reward Imbalance Model: psychological distress occur if amount of effort expended at work exceeds amount of reward received in relation to this effort  variant of PE fit model lack of reciprocity between effort and rewards results in increase levels of stress Job-Demands Resouces Model (JD-R): employees are exposed to physical, psychological, social and organization aspects of working environment that can be categorized either as demands(health impairment) or as resources ( increased engagement)  employees are exposed to physical, psychological, social, organizational aspects of working environment categorized either demands or resources  job demands: any aspects of job require physical or psychological effort  like job stressors  environment also physical, psychological social organizational aspec ( job control, social support, task variety, compensation) assist in employees completion of their work reduce burden of job demands and promote personal growth  two psychological processes influence job strain  health impairment process: job demands decrease physical and psychological resources leading to burnout and other negative health outcomes  motivation process: access to job resources increase employee engagement and other positive outcomes  even if you experience work demands, having resources may help you cope lessening negative effect on health  Demands /Stressors  internal or external events that may create strain 6 Categories of Work Demands : 1.Job content and control: tasks that people perform at work , repetitive tasks, control helps lowers and increase satisfaction, commitment and involvement 2. Interpersonal Relationships: 3. Workload and Work pace: work load should match abilities , work-life balance 4. Role Stressors: demands due to ambiguous definitions of responsibilities or conflicting demands 5. Career Concerns: job insecurity, work safety, effort-reward imbalance 6.Work Scheduling: professionals should meet demands of non work life job specific: role stressors, job content, workload, work pace factor of job: job control, degree which leader and organization facilitate interpersonal: relationships with coworkers, clients organization: workload, pace, career concerns, work scheduling Stigma  20.6% workers in Canada suffer mental illness  500 000 workers sick each day mental health problem Non-work demands Work Resources: Control: what type of work you do, how you do, when you do, where you do Support: decrease levels of work life conflict , reducing burnout Justice: fair treament by organization, fair outcomes, Family Life and Personal Resources Social Support: Personal Characteristics: Locus of control: Self esteem/ efficacy: weak for esteem, more for efficacy Type A behaviour: negative health outcomes Coping Style: Emotion focus coping: making your self feel better about situation Problem focused coping: actively doing something to try to make the problem better , effective when control of individual Negative and Positive Health Indicators  stress can impact ones own health, well being, productivity or organizational health and productivity Individual Outcomes 1. Behavioural outcomes: a. Counter productive work behaviours (aggressive, stealing) b. Flight from job involves absenteeism, turnover, early retire c. Work degradation decreased job performance increased work related accidents d. Degradation of other life roles reduction in ones functions in other roles (parent) e. Self damaging behaviours drug or alcohol abuse 2. psychological outcomes: work related affect (dissatisfaction) or general, anger , psychological symtoms like depression burnout 3. physical outcomes: immediate symptoms elevated blood pressure and cortisol levels cardiovascular dieases , gastrointentials  relationships among outcomes may be reciprocal Burnout: syndrome composed of high levels of emotional exhaustion, cynicism, reduced sense of professional efficacy  may develop as lack of job person fit  mismatch between values, control, reward, community Engagement: charged with energy and full dedicated to ones work, composed of vigour, dedication, absorption Organizational Outcomes  not a lot of evidence linking stress and job performance  evidence suggest stressor related important organizational attitudes and behaviours Work-Life Conflict: inter role conflict in which role pressures from work and family or other life domains are mutually incompatible such that participation in one role is made more difficult by virtue of participation in another role Causes:  incompatible time demands strain arising from two or more roles and incompatible expectations from different roles Time demands: high work load coupled with demands from outside work o
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