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Chapter 13.docx

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Psychology 2060
Irene Cheung

Chapter 13- Unionization  Two reason role of unions: o They are organizations in own right and create context for unique forms of organizational behaviour o Exist in organizations and have demonstrable effect on other behaviours o Relationship between I/O psychologists and labour movement “mutual neglect”  US 12%, Canada 30%, UK 74% Finland 78%  Canada less than 20% private sector employees belong to unions, over 70%public  US unionization low and declining  Newfoundland and Labrador most unionized and Alberrta least  Union: combination of people who are joined together for common cause  Local: brqanch of union in particular workplace  Largest unions in Canada is Canadian Union of Public Employees  Craft unions: Union represent 1 particular occupation  Industrial unions: organizations that represent all workers in an industry  Collective bargaining: union bargain collectively with management, union bargins on behalf of all the members represented by union  Collective agreement: agreement reached through contract, legally binding on employer union and employees Unionization Process:  Understanding unionizatio requires understanding factors that motivate individuals to join labour unions  unionization: process through which an individual becomes associated with a union, beings before individuals enters work force and continues throughout the span of union involvement  key events in this process: pre-joining, joining the union, committing to and participating in the union, leaving union 1. Pre-joining  Process of socialization  Parental work experiences affect children  Union attitudes develop through socialization process  Young adults union attitudes predicted by their perceptions of their parents attitudes toward unions  Hypothesized role of family socialization process development of union attitudes  Links between parental childrens attitudes are stronger when chil identifies with parent in question  Family socialization process appear to be a more  Influence on young workers union attitudes than their own job attitudes and experiences 2. Joining  Closed shop agreement: collective agreement , union and management agree all employees in bargaining unit will be union members  One becomes union member simply by accepting employment in unionized firm  Members and employees wishing to prevent unionization both intensely interested in why individuals would vote for union during a certification elections  Certification elections: election held to determine whether a union will be certified as the bargaining agent for a group of workers  Pro-union attitudes are associated with greater willingness to join the union and anti union attitudes are associated with a resistance to union joining  Resolving job dissatisfactions or injustice predictor of union joining  Perceived costs and benefits of unionization as well as contextual factors  Unionization is combined result of job dissatisfaction, a belief in the value of collective action, perception that joining a union would be instrumental resolving the dissatisfaction (rational choice)  (1)First must be dissatisfaction or frustration  (2)Believe that union will helpful in resolving this dissatisfaction  (3)Positive perception of unions in general 3. Committing to the Union  Many members of a union may be apathetic, or openly hostile toward the union  Union commitment “binding of an individual to an organization “  Important predictor of union-relevant behaviour  Union commitment comprised four dimension  Union loyalty: affective attachment to and recognition of benefits of belonging to the union  Responsibility to the union: willingness to take day to day responsibilities  Willingness to work for the union : dimension of union commitment reflecting willingness to take special efforts (hold office serve on committees) on behalf of the union  Belief in unionism: subscale of union commitment reflecting general attitudes toward unions  Union commitment is comprised of union loyalty , willingness to work for the union and responsibility to the union  Union commitment good predictor of union-relevant behaviours such as participation in the union, an antecedent of militancy (willingness to take action to support union), and correlate strike propensity ( willingness to go on strike)  Early socialization experience in union and experiences with union leadership commitment perceptions of union instrumentality and general attitudes toward unions Dual commitment : being commitment to two entities at same time  Whether individual could be committed to both union and employer at same time  One could be both an active union member and loyal American  Union and company commitment depended on state of union-management relations  Union-management relationships were harmonious, positive, and respectful then employees could be committed to both union and employers  Quasi-experimental study in US attitudes on 2 union members, one on strike and one not Psychological Involvement in the Union: importance of union activities in ones life, parallel construct of job involvement , identification of individual with union activity  Psychological involvement in union was distinct from union commitment  Psychological involvement emerged as better predictor of stewards industrial relations stress and work-union role conflict than did union commitment  Concluded that psychological involvement was promising construct and measure to further the stud of union—member relationships 4. Participating in the union  Unions explicitly advocate a democratic structure in which every member has right to influence the affairs of union  If members don’t participate in union activities then union open to charges of being undemocratic  Types of participation view does not reflect the nature of unions as representative democracies  Attendance at union meetings only 10%difficult to argue that a democratic process was followed  Members elected representatives to do work of the unions  Union participation best viewed as unidimensional and cumulative construct  Female union members participated in union much less frequently than male union members  Barriers include other commitment, lack of experience with unions, lack of female role models in union movement  Union higher female representation , female respondents reported both higher competence level greater opportunity to participate in ;local activities  Union self-efficacy womens sense of union barriers and participation in union activities  Union barriers participation primarily affect women with lower levels of union self efficacy  Women with high sense of union self efficacy participate in union activities regardless o of barriers  Union offered specialized courses for female members and actively encourage womens participation Militancy  Reflects type of actions an individual willing to take on behalf of union  Willingness to take strong measures missing work or acting against wishes of friends and family  Commitment to union and psychological involvement predict militancy  Canadian federation of students students asked to gather at provincial legislature for a rally to protest escaling tutition rates Leaving  Existence of closed shop agreements mean that a member cannot simply quit the union whil still employed  In US can leave union and maintain the benefits of union  Even where closed shop provisions exist members of union may leave the union by voting to decertify in favour another union or lack of collective representation  Leaving the union was not simply the opposite of joining  Presence of a union representative decreased the chance of an individual leaving the union by 50% and more individualistic more likely they wereto leave the labour organization  Those who leave unions are those who less attached to union in first place  Decertification: process through which union members decide that they no longer want to be represented by union 5. Collective Bargaining  After a union is certified next step is to negotiate the contract between union and management  First set of negotiations is likely to be most protracted and controversial for several reasons 1. fundamental issues resolved , union dues collection and remission resolution systems i. first collective a
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