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Lecture 1

Psychology 2075 Lecture 1: Lecture Notes - Chapter 10, 11, 12, 18, 19

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Psychology 2075
Stephen Ferguson

Sexual Assault – Guest Speaker Definition of Sexual Assault in Canada • No definition of “rape” in Criminal Code of Canada • “Sexual assault” o occurs when one person intentionally and w/out consent applies force to another person, either directly or indirectly • Assault of sexual nature that violates victim o Supreme Court states that act of sexual assault does not depend on contact w/ specific body part o It is an assault that impacts sexual integrity of victim o Objective test • When investigating sexual assault, police consider: o Part of body touched o Nature of contact o Situation in which event occurred o Words and gestures accompanying attack o Any threats o Use of force • Sexual assault complainants (victims) may be men or women, and perpetrator can be same sex or different sex • Possible responses to sexual assault o Civil proceeding o Do nothing o Institutional redress o Criminal proceeding What is consent? • Voluntary agreement of complainant to engage in sexual activity in question • No consent is obtained when o Someone else gives consent o Complainant is incapable of giving consent o Accused gains consent by abusing position of authority o Complainant uses words or actions to demonstrate he/she is not interested in sexual activity o Complainant initially consented to activity but then uses words or conduct to show that he/she no longer agrees to that conduct Relevant Concepts Proof Beyond Reasonable Doubt • Crown must prove that defendant is guilty beyond reasonable doubt (BRD) • Reasonable doubt is more than belief accused probably committed crime o BRD much closer to absolute certainty than civil standard (which is balance of probabilities) o Reasonable doubt is such a doubt as would cause reasonable people to hesitate before acting in matters of importance to themselves • When Crown proves their case beyond reasonable doubt, it rebuts presumption of innocence and accused is convicted Credibility • One who is worthy of belief • While credibility relates to sincerity, truthfulness, and logic, lack of credibility does not necessarily mean lying Ex: bad memory (poor historian) Sentencing for Sexual Assault • In general, sexual assault leads to jail term ranging from 18 months to 10 years • Judges consider: o History of offences o Unique circumstances of case (remorse, seeking treatment) o Brutality of attack o Age of victim Roles of Various Parties in Sexual Assault Trial Police • Investigate crime o Interview witnesses o Videotaped witness statement of victim is likely o Taking photos of injuries o Collect physical evidence • Direct victims to Sexual Assault Evidence kits (forensic evidence) • Police may lay charges (except B.C> need Crown approval) Lawyers • Crown attorney o At trial, Crown will try to prove victim was sexually assaulted by accused o Disclosure obligation o Crown is not lawyer for victim; Crown owes duty to do what is best for society o As public prosecutor, Crown’s prime duty is not to seek to convict but to see that justice is done through fair trial • Defence lawyer o Does not have to prove innocence of their client (the accused) o Their duty is to their client and must vigorously defend their client’s innocence • Complainant’s/victims lawyer o Possible but unusual for complainant to have lawyer o Helpful to have lawyer if witness has significant role in trial • Alleged perpetrator o Charter of Rights and Freedoms protects individual from unfair treatment by state o Some protected rights include: ▪ Right to be informed of offence ▪ Right not to be compelled to be a witness ▪ Right to be presumed innocent ▪ Right to trial by jury • Witnesses (including alleged victim of sexual assault) o They will receive subpoena to testify in court o Provide testimony as to what happened • Judge o Pubic official who oversees court room o Listen to and read all of evidence and render decision about guilty or innocence of accused • Jury o 12-14 people who act as ‘lay judges’ and render decision about guilt or innocence at end of trial after they have received jury instruction o rare in Canadian criminal cases o must not have any contact w/ accused or witnesses • Media o No official role in court process although trials open to public o Must represent publication bans of court o Can pose problems for keeping jury naïve to facts of case o Can pose problems for Crown’s case when witnesses speak to media Fundamental Aspects of Canadian Justice System 1. Physical evidence of crime is not mandatory o Important when identity of accused is in question o Not necessary for conviction o Ex: rape kit 2. Accused is not compelled to testify o Unless accused has very strong alibi evidence, usually no reason for accused to testify o Could be tactical error to testify since lawyers are trained to make witnesses appear inconsistent 3. Adversarial process o Allows parties to fight their way to truth o Judge’s role is like baseball referee o Opposing parties presenting best possible view of evidence, neutralizing unhelpful evidence, and advocating for most favorable interpretation of law for their client 4. Oral testimony of witnesses important to proving crime o Important but can be traumatic for victims o Victim’s credibility decided by judge or jury o Defence lawyers role is to discredit complaint’s credibility Can we accurately assess witness credibility? • Lay persons generally associate lying w/ nervous behaviors o Speech disturbances, long pauses, gaze aversion, body shifting o Research generally indicates opposite behavioral pattern • Sentencing research shows that judges are heavily influenced by schemas based on their past experiences w/ defendants and complainants Judicial assessment of credibility • Porter and ten Brinke (2006) asked judges how they assess witness credibility: o 37.5% - dishonest witnesses gave more details than honest witnesses o 43.8% - witnesses avert their eyes when lying o 50% - dishonest witnesses gave less consistent stories o 38% - lying witnesses fidget more • judges demonstrated high level of confidence in ability to detect deception • in sum: no consistency in how judges assess credibility o not taught in judge training o only recently do social scientists research this • judges considered complainants to be more deceptive in their testimony than defendants Witnesses: oral testimony • proposition of legal system that human memory degrades linearly over time • cultural belief that individuals are hyperaware during traumatic events and are more inclined to remember precise details (“flashbulb memories”) • traumatic memories more likely to be: o less clear and vivid o less visually detailed • traumatic memories less likely to be in chronological order, and more likely to contain fewer sensory components than pleasant memories Witnesses: how trauma affects memory • executive functioning may shut down during stressful situations and it becomes very difficult to control what we pay attention to o harder to make sense of what we’re experiencing o difficult to later recall experience in an orderly way • amygdala takes over during traumatic events and we cannot encode memories and time sequence; later all we can remember are irrelevant details we focused on • stress hormone cortisol can affect hippocampus impeding formation of new memories Association b/w sexual abuse and psychiatric disorders • “sexual abuse” includes rape (oral, anal, vaginal penetration), and all forms of sexual abuse (included, but not limited to noncontact exposure of genitalia, threatened sexual violence, oral-genital contact) • sexual abuse associated w/ increase risk of multiple psychiatric disorders including: o anxiety disorders o depression o eating disorders o post-traumatic stress disorder o sleep disorders o attempted suicide How CJS assist victims of sexual trauma 1. testify using pseudonym 2. victims have right to ask Court to protect their identity using publication ban so their identity cannot be broadcast 3. Victim impact statements (VIS) during sentencing a. Gives victims of crime and their families voice in criminal justice proceedings b. May discuss emotional, physical, economic, or psychological impact of crime on victim and their family c. Available even if no trial R. v. Ghomeshi – Public reactions: federal member of Parliament Charlie Angus 1. Famous people can afford lawyers known as “Hannibal Lecter” for their ability to take sexual witnesses apart 2. That Ghomeshi won’t bother to disprove any of charges b/c “there are many reasons why accused elects not to call evidence. One of them is that complainants have been destroyed in cross-examination” 3. That Ghomeshi flourished as predator in what should have been safest organization in country and that legal system continues to fail women 4. Nobody close to Ghomeshi even pretends he is innocent, and somehow this isn’t an issue – the women are New Zealand pilot study to improve CJ practices for sexual assault • High percentage of victims “opt out” (alienating, traumatizing and unresponsive) • Information: counselors available to educate victims reinvestigation and prosecution of sex offenders • Specialized judges and lawyers (requiring certification) • Courts: complainants pre-record evidence closer to date of complaint (for cross- examination as well) • Alternatives to court: victim and alleged perpetrator meet so she can tell her story, perpetrator may apologize or undertake to undergo treatment Goal: victims feel sense of justice and perpetrators take responsibility for their actions Sexual Dysfunction (Sexual Hassels) History of Approaches to Sexual Dysfunction Sir John Hunter, MD, reports first treatment of erectile failure – 1786 • Sends couples w/ unconsummated marriage, due to erectile dysfunction, to his secluded cabin, and forbids sexual contact • Records that he sent couple to isolated cabin to reside for 1 week w/ instructions to forbid any sexual contact • Failed w/in 3 days • Sensei focus o Activities that are done, but must be stopped when arousal occurs • Sexual function inhibited by anxiety – Masters and Johnson • Performance anxiety – “Spectator” – Masters and Johnson • Arrange things to make an end run in anxiety Richard Krafft-Ebding, “Psychopathia Sexualis” – 1890-1900 • Case book of what he would’ve called sexual perversions • Appallingly Victorian • Rx: hot iron to clitoris of masturbator Freudian psychoanalysis, psychodynamic approaches – 1930-1965 • Sexual problems are symptoms of unconscious conflict • Do not treat symptoms – identify and provide insight into their underlying unconscious conflictual basis • Multiyear iatrogenic treatment of clitoral orgasm, rapid ejaculation • Unsocialized aggressive sexual urges • Unresolved castration anxiety – rapid ejaculation o Minimize exposure to this type of grief Sexual Dysfunction and Therapy Masters and Johnson – 1965-1990 • Pragmatic (I don’t care why it works, only if it works), brief, symptom focused, behavioral therapySexual anxiety – product of rapid male ejaculation • Sexual problems are learned behaviors that are amenable to learned solutions Sex vs. Marital and Relationship therapy – 1990-2000 • Disorders of sexual desire: Helen Kaplan • Sexual desire as first stage of sexual interaction Pharmacotherapy of Sexual Dysfunction – 1990-2000 • Sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil; testosterone; fibanserin • Prior to his 1983 presentation at American Urological association, Brindley injected his penis with an alpha-blocking smooth muscle relaxant that works as a non-specific vasodilator Definitions of FSD: DSM-IV-TR • Sexual aversion disorder: persistent or recurrent extreme aversion/hatred to, or avoidance of, all (or almost all) genital sexual contact w/ a sexual partner o Associated w/ early sexual trauma • Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD): persistent or recurrent deficiency (or absence) of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity • Sexual Arousal Disorder: persistent or recurrent inability to attain, or to maintain until completion of the sexual activity, an adequate lubrication-swelling response of sexual excitement • Dyspareunia: recurrent or persistent genital pain associated w/ sexual intercourse • Vestibulodynia (under the labia, around entrance to vagina): vulvar and vestibular “burning” or “cutting” type of pain; may be provoked or unprovoked • Vaginismus: recurrent or persistent involuntary contraction of the perineal muscles surrounding other third of vagina when vaginal penetration w/ penis, finger, tampon or speculum is attempted * The disturbances must cause marked distress or interpersonal difficulty and must not be better accounted for by effects of another (non-sexual) psychiatric disorder, medical disorder or substance Prevalence of Female Sexual Dysfunction Sexual problems and distress in US women • Orgasmic dysfunction – occurred b/w 2-7% of all women, peaking around menopause (50-59) – least common • Arousal – second least common (peak 50-59) • Desire disorders – most common (peak 50-59) • As age increases, prevalence increases but distress decreases Female Patient Reports – London ON Desire Disorders • 47% women – inhibited sex desire o “My sexual desire is often much lower than I would like it to be” • 22% partner - inhibited sex desire o “my partners sexual desire is often much lower than I would like it to be” • 23% couple – frequency dissatisfaction o “my partner and I often have serious disagreements about how often we want to have intercourse” Arousal Issues • 28% woman – arousal or lubrication problems o “My vagina often does not become lubricated enough when I have intercourse” o menopause Orgasmic Issues • 35% woman – lack of orgasm o “I usually do not have an orgasm during intercourse” Painful Intercourse • 24% woman – painful intercourse o experience pain during intercourse One or more of dysfunctions • 79% Ever discuss w/ medical doctor? • 16% Definitions of MSD: DSM-IV-TR • sexual aversion disorder: persistent or recurrent extreme aversion to, or avoidance of, all (or almost all) genital sexual contact w/ sexual partner • Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD): persistent or recurrent deficiency (or absence) sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity • Sexual arousal disorder: persistent or recurrent inability to attain, or to maintain until completion of sexual activity, an adequate erection • Orgasmic disorder: persistent or recurrent ejaculation w/ minimal sexual stimulation before, on, or shortly after penetration and before person wishes it. o Persistent or recurrent delay in, or absence of, orgasm following normal sexual excitement phase • Dyspareunia: recurrent or persistent genital pain associated w/ sexual intercourse (ex: Peyronie’s disease) * Disturbances must cause marked distress or interpersonal difficulty and must not be better accounted for by effects of another (non-sexual) psychiatric disorder, medical disorder, or substance Prevalence of Male Sexual Dysfunction – NHSLS Results During last 12 months, has there been period of several months or more when you… Disorder Question Ages 18-19 Ages 30-39 Ages 40-49 Ages 50-59 Hypoactive Lacked 14% 13% 15% 17% sexual desire interest in disorder having sex (HSDD) Erectile Trouble 7% 9% 11% 18% disorder (ED) achieving or maintaining erection Rapid Came to 30% 32% 28% 31% ejaculation climax to quickly Orgasmic Unable to 7% 7% 9% 9% disorder come to climax Diagnostic Axes • Desire phase • Arousal phase • Orgasm phase • Coital pain * Often interrelated diagnoses: desire disorder + arousal disorder * Often related to partner diagnosis: ED (his)   HSDD (hers) = theirs Sexual Dysfunction: Intake Interview • Diagnostic factors o Desire, arousal, orgasm, pain o Lifelong vs. acquired, global vs. situational, presentation vs. discovery o Primary complaint? Interactive couple disorder? • Personal, sexual, relationship, medical history o Predisposing factor ▪ Anti-sex upbringing, past sexual trauma o Precipitating factor ▪ Partner demands, new child o Perpetuating factor ▪ Couple conflict, power struggle • Couple and individual interviews o Couple dynamics? o Individual disclosures? Etiology of sexual dysfunction: bio-psycho-social approach • Biology o Physical health, neurobiology, endocrine function • Psychology o Performance anxiety, impaired self-image, depression • Interpersonal o Quality of current and past relationships, intervals of abstinence, life stressors, finances • Sociocultural o Upbringing, cultural norms and expectations Female and male desire phase disorder causes  bickering couple conflict • Fatigue • Comorbid (associated w/) sexual dysfunction • Distractions (financial, work, school) • Pressure to participate • Liabilities (pregnancy, birth control, STI) • Past trauma • Testosterone • Menopause • Hysterectomy/oophorectomy • Medications Female Arousal Phase Disorder Causes • Low desire • Architecture of intercourse • Poor physical stimulation by partner • Poor psychological stimulation by partner • Boredom • Pressure to participate • Dislike of partner • Performance anxiety • Partner sexual dysfunction • Sexual orientation • Liabilities (pregnancy, birth control, STI) • Past trauma • Menopause • Hysterectomy/oophorectomy • Chronic illness • Medications, street drugs Male Arousal Phase Dysfunction Causes • Low desire • Anxiety • spectatoring • Normal aging • Comorbid disease (vascular, neurologic, metabolic) • Poor physical stimulation by partner • Poor psychological stimulation by partner • Pressure to participate • Dislike of partner • Performance anxiety • Liabilities (pregnancy, birth control, STI) • Condoms • Boredom • Partner sexual dysfunction • Sexual orientation • Past trauma • Medications, alcohol, street drugs • hypogonadalism Men’s Attitudes to Life Events and Sexuality: MALES Study Phase I: ED Prevalence and Comorbidities • representative samples of adult male population, ages 20-75, eight countries, Feb-April 2001 • Standardized 15-minute interview assessing men’s health issues • 16% self-report erection difficulties o only 16% still using treatment • ED prevalence increases w/ age • ED prevalence increases w/ comorbid conditions Methods: FEMALES Study • Consent sought from all men w/ ED participating in MALES study to interview their partner – 283 female partners • Partners were asked “before/since your partner experienced difficulties w/ his erection, how frequently (almost always/most times), during sexual activity w/ your partner, did following occur: o “I experienced/experience sexual desire or interest” ▪ Pre-ED: 72 ▪ Current: 46 o “I became/become aroused” ▪ Pre-ED: 75 ▪ Current: 44 o “I reached/reach orgasm” ▪ Pre-ED: 65 ▪ Current: 34 o “I had/have pain w/ during sex” Partner Satisfaction Study: Improving sexual satisfaction in men w/ ED and their partners Objective • to assess patient improvement in erectile function and partners’ impact on sexual quality of life as function of treatment w/ vardanefil, a PDE5 inhibitor like Viagra Study design – Week 4 • men w/ ED for 6 or more months • female partners motivated to pursue treatment for their male partner’s ED • Modified sexual life quality questionnaire (mSLQQ) • Treatment Satisfaction Scale (TSS) Maintenance of Erection in Intercourse • Vardenafil – 20% baseline  69% LOCF Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire • Male patients: 23% baseline  64% LOCF • Female partners: 28% baseline  66% LOCF (same as prior to ED) Pleasure • Male patients: 42% baseline  65% LOCF • Female partners: 47% baseline  63% LOCF Satisfaction • Male patients: 30% baseline  61% LOCF • Female partners: 39% baseline  61% LOCF Male and Female Orgasm Phase Disorders Inorgasmic – Global, lifelong – primarily female • Early sexual trauma • Inadequate sexual knowledge • Inadequate stimulation by self • Inadequate stimulation by partner • Sexual orientation issues or conflicts • Anxieties about inorgasmic status Inorgasmic – Acquired • Sexual trauma • Relationship conflict • Partner sexual dysfunction • Medical issues (STI diagnosis, medication, oophorectomy) Inorgasmic – Situational • Children • Relationship conflict • Inadequate stimulation • Episodic situational stressors (unemployment, relative move in) Female Orgasm Phase Disorders • Infrequent coital orgasm • Inorgasmic except masturbation • Common – not dysfunction – but could be “concern” • “How often do you have an orgasm when you have penis in vagina intercourse?” o 0-25% of time  53.9% o 26-50% of time  13.9% o 0-50% of time  68% • “How often do you have an orgasm when you masturbate?” o 51-75% of time  10.1% o 76-100% of time  62.3% o 51-100% of time  72% “Did you Come” – Male and Female Concerns about Female Coital Orgasm • qualitative analysis of transcripts to identify themes concerning occurrence and non- occurrence of female orgasm during sexual interactions • 5 male and 5 female focus groups of Western undergrad convened for discussion “Did you Come” – Female Focus Group Results 1. Males are responsible for giving females physical stimulation to orgasm – women are responsible for receiving stimulation and having orgasm 2. Female orgasm is not necessary for women’s sexual satisfaction during partnered interactions 3. Female orgasm is much more important for male partner than female partner 4. Women rely on “working assumptions” not direct communication (but they are correct) 5. Women’s physical pleasure is secondary to men’s ego 6. Female orgasm, and sexual communication, is more important in a relationship “Did you Come” – Male Focus Group Results • Largely agreed w/ female concerns about male feelings • Largely agreed w/ greater importance of female orgasm in relationships • Disagreed about clitoral stimulation – huge turn on for men o Except if it comes from vibrator Men’s and Women’s Reports of Faking Orgasm • Men: 34% • Women: 71% Male Orgasm Phase Disorder – Rapid Ejaculation • “newest” sexual dysfunction • “premature ejaculation” • speed is (nearly) always rewarded o speed of solving problems o speed of running, finishing degree • common physiological variation • natural selection of rapid ejaculation? o Coition is time of heightened vulnerability to predation o Survival of fastest • Start/stop technique Female Coital Pain • Dyspareunia o Outlet: lack of lubrication, hymen tags, episiotomy, menopause, provoked or unprovoked vestibulodynia o Deep: endometriosis, PID and pelvic scaring • Vaginismus: sexual pain and spasm • Coitally exacerbated pain: any musculoskeletal condition (bad back) or chronic pain condition Male Coital Pain • Peyrone’s disease: fibrous scar tissue inside penis, result of inflammatory condition, that causes curved, painful erections • Coitally exacerbated pain: any musculoskeletal or chronic pain condition Treatment Approaches “P-LI-SS-IT” Approach • Permission: give permission for patient’s sexual behavior when appropriate • Limited Information: provide info that could be helpful to patient • Specific Suggestions: make specific suggestions that might assist patient • Intensive Therapy: decide when needed and work out to whom to refer in advance Prescription Medications • SSRI antidepressants o Anorgasmia o Erectile problems o Hypoactive desire • Anti-hypertensives o Erectile dysfunction o Vaginal dryness, dyspareunia • ACE inhibitors o Erectile dysfunction • Statins o Erectile dysfunction • Antihistamines o Vaginal dryness • Oral contraception o Decreased libido in some Recreational Drugs • Alcohol o Disinhibition o Delay • Alcoholism o Generalized negative effects • Amphetamines, cocaine o Increases sexual responsiveness in low doses o Decreases sexual responsiveness in high doses or when used over prolonged • Marijuana o Decreases inhibitions o Increases touch sensitivity o Erectile dysfunction, lowers T, reduce sperm production, in long term or daily use Attraction and Love (Part One) - Attraction Assumed Linear Model Attraction  love  sex Attraction • Liking and positive evaluation of other • Platonic or sexual What Drives Attraction? • Reinforcement theory • Sociobiological theory o Men’s focus of attraction: fertility cues o Women’s focus of attraction: provisioning cues • Byrne’s Law of Attraction o Positive + negative reinforcements o Reinforcement leads to positive affect and positive evaluations: liking and loving What is Interpersonally Reinforcing? • Hedonically positive experiences produce associated positive evaluations: under right circumstances (cues), this leads to platonic or sexual and romantic attraction • Attitude similarity – interpersonal agreement – is strongly positively reinforcing • Attitude similarity provides consensual validation concerning critical but otherwise unverifiable issues • Attitude similarity drives interpersonal attraction b/c it is reinforcing • Attitude similarity is usually but not always reinforcing Laboratory study of interpersonal attraction Byrne’s “Bogous Stranger” technique • Same sex stranger: similar sexual attitudes  9.50 • Opposite sex stranger: similar sexual attitudes  10.89 o Sexual attitude similarity especially important in opposite-sex heterosexual dyads “Real-Life” study of interpersonal attraction Computer Dating • 420 couples responded to measures of attitudes and personality • 44 maximally similar or maximally dissimilar couples matched and sent on 30-minte “Coke date” • Interpersonal judgmental scale, physical proximity, and follow-up measures of attraction were assessed • Males o Attractive date: similar attitude match  12 o Unattractive date: similar attitude match: 10.43 • Females o Unattractive date: similar attitude match  12.71 o Unattractive date: similar attitude  11.00 • Overall, regardless of whether date was attractive or not, rated higher if similar attitudes Similarity is Not Always Reinforcing Attitude Similarity to an emotionally troubled person – Desire to Avoid • Males o Normal/dissimilar: 10.20 (rather avoid dissimilar normal person) o Disturbed/similar: 9.20 (rather avoid similar disturbed person) • Females o Normal/dissimilar: 10.20 (rather avoid dissimilar normal person) o Disturbed/similar: 10.00 (rather avoid similar disturbed person) • Higher scores = more desire to avoid General Sociobiology of Mate Preferences Attractiveness, Provisioning and Genetic Fitness 1. Health/fertility  facial symmetry, facial averageness, waist-hip ratio, height  physical attractiveness  overall mate attractiveness 2. Neuro-physiological efficiency  vocabulary size, wit/humor, world knowledge, creative story-telling  intelligence  overall mate attractiveness 3. Provisioning ability/resources  education, job status, income, possessions/fashion  social status  overall mate attractiveness 4. Capacity for cooperative relationship  kindness, adaptability, generosity, morality  personality  overall mate attractiveness Gendered Sociobiological Hypothesis • gender differences in cues for attraction o “genetic fitness” for an in men and women differ • fertility cues crucial in women • provisioning cues crucial in men Physical Attractiveness and Sexual Attraction • Evolutionary psychologists emphasize value of physical attractiveness as indicator of youth and fertility • Physical attractiveness should be more important to men than women (fertility cues) • Buss (1989) confirmed this in each of 37 cultures studied • “Matching” of physical attractiveness more characteristic of romantic parents than of same-sex friends Physical Features Attractive to Men Breasts • Physical feature should be perceived as attractive in women only when that feature is reliably linked w/ youth, health and ability to conceive and sustain pregnancy • Estrogen levels are low before puberty and following menopause, but are relatively high b/w these two periods of life • Pregnancy, lactation, fertility Waist to Hip Ratio • Women w/ waist to hip ratios around .70 have more estrogen than women w/ higher waist to hip ratios o Health and fertility signals • Women w/ higher waist to hip ratios have more health problems, independent of how heavy they are • Singh (1993) obtained measurements from all of Miss America winners (1923-1987) and Playboy Centerfolds (1955-1965, 1976-1990) o Waist to hip ratio of women, regardless of year and weight, was approx. .70 Facial Features – Evolutionary Psychology Perspective • “health certificate” • evenly colored skin, supple skin, clean eyes, shiny hair certify health and fertility • facial symmetry and averageness – signal of genetic quality • male and female facial attractiveness also certify hormonal status • departures from facial symmetry, called fluctuating asymmetry, may indicate mal- development and poor genetic quality • male and females were asked to rate high to low symmetry faces o males and females rated high symmetry faces as more attractive and as better long-term mates o males ratings of long term mate suitableness was more affected than women’s ratings, by degree of facial symmetry Males • male facial features serve as sex hormone markers • testosterone affects male facial features o cheekbones o jaws o chin o eyebrow ridges o central face o lower facial bones • large size is dominance cue • large size is signal of ability to engage in intra-sexual completion • female preference for male facial characteristics increases during fertile phase of menstrual cycle and for short term-mating preferences Females • female facial features as sex hormone markers • estrogen in pubertal females caps growth of bony structures that are relatively large in male faces • estrogen also results in enlargement of lips and cheeks via fat deposition • attractiveness of female faces greatest w/ smallness of bony feature of lower face, large lips, and width and height of cheeks Mate Selection Preferences – US National Sample Suitability for Marriage: 1=not at all willing to marry, 7= very willing to marry • Not good looking – more important for men • Older by 5 years – more important for men • Younger by 5 years – more important for men • Not likely steady job – more important for women • Earn less than you – more important for women • Earn more than you – more important for women • More education than you – more important for women • Less education than you – more important for women Men’s and Women’s Preference for Partner’s Age Across Lifespan Fertility vs. Resources • Personal’s Ad Age Preference o Male’s age preference: as men got older, wanted younger women o Female’s age preference: as women got older, stable similar age preference • Men should desire younger female partners (fertility), women should care less about youth and fertility and might want similar age partners (resource provision) Physical Attractiveness • Male and female class of 1955 high school pictures rated for attractiveness • Education, income and marriage characteristics were assessed 15 years later, when participants were in mid-30s • Most attractive women o 10x more likely to marry o younger age at marriage o most educated husbands o highest income husbands • Least attractive men o Highest high school math scores o Highest years of education o Highest socioeconomic status o Highest age of marriage o Most well educated wives o Least premarital intercourse Dominance in Men • Dominance might be a “meta-trait” that signals overall ability to provision offspring • Dominance should be an attractive trait for women but not for men • Men and women exposed to dominant or non-dominant opposite sex other • Rated opposite sex other’s sexual attractiveness and dating desirability • Dominant opposite sex other: o Relaxed o Leans backward o Nods very little o Gestures a lot o Not too attentive • Non-dominant opposite sex other: o Head bowed o Leans forward o Nods constantly o Listens to other person speak Minimal Mate Standards • Short-term vs. long-term relationship standards • Short-term: less investment, particularly for men • Long-term: great deal of investment, for both men and women • Importance of mate characteristics differs b/w males and females o Minimum intelligence desired ▪ women desired slightly above average intelligence for single date ▪ women wanted more intelligence in partner w/ increasing commitment ▪ men have similar criteria for single date • just a bit lower ▪ men have similar criteria as women do at higher levels of commitment • just a bit lower at steady, but higher on marriage o men’s criteria are much lower than women are when it comes to sexual partners o male-female differences are most pronounced for one-night stands compared to sexual relations in general • females increase their selectivity as probability of pregnancy and offspring increases • males are selective for long term relationships where they commit resources • males are less selective if given opportunity for low investment reproductive encounter • support for social exchange theory: self-ratings were always correlated w/ preferences • criticism: this and most research based on young university students w/ relatively little life experience • criticism: this and most research deals w/ preferences, not actual mate selection outcomes or relationship success or failure which are moderated by individual and social factors Intra-Sex Competition • Men derogate competitor’s resources • women derogate competitor’s looks • derogation of female competitor, by female to male o spread rumors o derogate intelligence o call promiscuous o derogate appearance • derogation of male competitor, by male to female o derogate achievements o derogate strength o derogate sexuality • derogation tactics used by men which were thought to be common and effective in minimizing competitor men’s attractiveness: o derogate competitor’s financial resources o derogate competitor’s achievements o say competitor has no aspirations o derogate competitor’s strength • derogation tactics used by women thought to be common and effective in minimizing competitor women’s attractiveness: o call competitor promiscuous o derogate competitor’s appearance o call competitor a tease o question competitor’s fidelity Attraction – Small Theories Propinquity • number of friendships will increase as physical distance b/w dwelling places of people decreases Familiarity • mere exposure to objects increases liking for them • different female confederates of researcher attended psychology class 0, 5, 10 15 times during semester – attraction to female was assessed at end of year o results: confederates that attended 10 or 15 times scored highest on attraction, becoming friends, enjoying time, working together, similarity, understanding her, similar plans Reasons to be at Bar • more important for males than for females to meet opposite sex (both at 9pm and 12pm) • effect of closing time or alcohol consumption o both males and female ratings increased from 9pm  10:30pm  12pm ▪ males were much higher Menstrual Cycle Phase – Effect on Women’s Attractiveness to Men • women become more attractive to men during fertile phase of their menstrual cycle o strip club dancers made most $/shift during fertile phase • men become more attractive to women during fertile phase of women’s menstrual cycle o women sniffed 41 t-shirts worn by high symmetrical men (good genes) and low symmetrical men (poor genes) for 2 nights  charted their menstrual cycle and their preferences for t-shirt scents ▪ women who were normally cycling preferred highly symmetrical men’s t- shirts when ovulating but not at other cycle points ▪ women on birth control showed no t-shirt scene preferences Attraction and Love (Part Two) – Love Rubin’s Theory of Love • Affiliation and dependence • Predisposition to help • Exclusiveness and absorption Validating Rubin’s Theory of Love: • Liking and Loving – Dating Partners and Same-Sex Friends o Males and females equally love partner, but females like partner more o Females love and like friend more than males • Love Scale Score Correlation o Females score high on agreeing that they are in love o Males and females equal for probability of marriage • Time spent gazing at partner/three minutes o Higher love scale scores: 56 seconds o Lower love scale scores: 45 seconds Passionate Love • “State of intense longing for one another. Reciprocated love associated w/ fulfillment and ecstasy. Unrequited love associated w/ emptiness, anxiety, or despair” • cognitive component: thoughts • emotional component: feelings • behavioral component: actions Theory of Passionate Love • Physiological arousal (anxiety, sexual) + cognitive love = passionate love • Implications: o Mislabelling of physiological arousal as love is possible o Passionate love will not outlast initial physiological arousal Passionate Love and Misattribution of Arousal • Male participants ran in place for 120 seconds (high physiological arousal) or 15 seconds (low physiological arousal) • Saw videotape of highly attractive or less attractive female and were told they would have an informal date w/ her • Physiologically aroused and non-aroused male participants rated her sexual and general attractiveness o Sexual attractiveness: how physically attractive, sexy, like to date, like to kiss o General attractiveness: how similar, enjoy working w/, like to get to know, get along w/ • High physiological arousal + attractive women = higher ratings for personality, sexual attraction and general attraction • High physiological arousal + unattractive women = lower ratings for personality, sexual attraction and general attraction Thrill of Taboo Love: Romeo and Juliet Effect • Married and steadily dating couples completed romantic love and parental interference scales at baseline and 6-10 months later • More parental interference, and increasing parental interference over time, were correlated w/ higher levels of romantic love Passionate Love and Thrill of Secret Relationships Hypothesis • Secret relationships are anxiety provoking, and anxiety will be mislabelled as passionate love • Secret relationships are more likely to be obsessed over when terminated • Secret relationships will be more likely to seem highly attractive than non-secret relationships Footsie study • Attraction and preoccupation to partner higher in secret contact Passionate Love and Abuse Relationships Hypothesis • Women (men) who have been abused and who remain w/ abusive partner will have high acknowledged levels of persistent arousal and anxiety due to abuse and terror • This arousal and anxiety will be mislabelled as love Stockholm Syndrome • Traumatic bonding w/ oppressor (Patty Hearst effect) o Cognitive distortions o Pathological dependence • 764 undergrad women completes measures of Stockholm Syndrome, partner abuse and Passionate love scale o women who suffered from Stockholm Syndrome – bonding w/ oppressor – were more likely to be used and more likely to score high in passionate love Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love • Intimacy: feeling of emotional closeness and mutual understanding – liking o Communication personal feelings o Offering empathy and support • Passion: motivation for physical closeness and sexual expression – infatuation o Touching o Lovemaking • Commitment: decision that one is in love and commitment to maintain love for long term – empty o Marriage o “I love you” • Consummate love: intimacy + passion + commitment • Companionate love: intimacy + commitment • Romantic love: intimacy + passion • Fatuous love: passion + commitment Testing Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love • Adults aged 18-68, romantic heterosexual relationships, completed Sternberg’s Triangular Love Scale, parallel measures of constructs, behavioral measures of constructs, as well as measure of relationship satisfaction • Examined association of components w/ each other, w/ parallel measures and behavioral measures of constructs, w/ relationship satisfaction, and w/ changes in over time Theory of Love Scale Valid? • Intimacy scale scores correlate w/ intimate behavior • Passion scale scores correlation w/ passionate behavior • Commitment scores correlate w/ commited behavior • Intimacy, passion, and commitment scales correlated w/ parallel measures of these constructs Theory of Love Empirically Supported? • Intimacy, passion and commitment scores are correlated w/ one another • Intimacy, passion and commitment scores are correlated w/ relationship satisfaction • Discrepancies (intimacy for current vs. ideal partner, passion for current vs. ideal partner) negatively correlated w/ relationship satisfaction • Stage of relationship (casual or exclusive dating or engaged or married) – not length of relationship – associated w/ increased intimacy and commitment and similar passion (men) or less passion (women) Sternberg – Love as a Story • Addiction – “if my partner were to leave me, my life would be completely empty” • Garden – believe that good relationship is attainable only if you are willing to spend time and energy to care for it as you would for a garden • Cookbook – to have a good relationship, you need to follow all necessary steps one by one • History – think about all moments shared w/ partner and how much this common history means to you • Government – one in charge more than the other • Travel – beginning a relationship is like starting new journey that promises to be both interesting and challenging • War – believing that arguing is healthy for close relationship • Couple correlations o Couples had moderately strong tendency to endorse same type of love story o Couples who endorsed similar stories were most satisfied • Intimacy o Negatively related to endorsement of business, game, mystery, actor, and police officer lover stories • Passion o Negatively related to endorsement of government, actor, history stories • Commitment o Negatively related to endorsement of government, game, actor Pair-Bonding Accepted Wisdom • In every known culture, formal marriage (pair bonding) arrangements b/w men and women exist • Marital attachment (pair bonding attachment) is a universal feature of human existence, and most people in world marry (pair bond) only one person at a time • This is the case b/c children survive to their own reproductive maturity best w/ two married (pair-bonded) parents Helen Fisher’s Model of Pair Bonding – 3 distinct emotion systems of pair bonding: 1. Lust o Motivates individuals to locate sexual opportunities o Mainly associated w/ estrogens and androgens in brain 2. Attraction o Directs individual’s attention toward specific mates o Makes people crave emotional union w/ this person o Associated w/ high levels of dopamine and norepinephrine and low levels of serotonin in brain 3. Attachment o Focused on maintenance of close proximity o Linked w/ feelings of comfort and security, and feelings of emotional dependency o Associated w/ oxytocin (mostly for women), and vasopressin (mostly for men) How Long is Long? • Fisher (1998) suggests that although long-term relationships have obvious reproductive and health benefits, desire to stay in one relationship decreases as function of amount of time it takes an infant to become less dependant on parental investment – approx. 4 years • Why 4 years? o Enough time to meet, fall in love, and produce offspring o Interest in each other decreases after children are born o Planned obsolescence of pair bond o Accounts for loss of passion? Contrarian View • The “nuclear family” pair bond view based upon anthropology of agricultural societies – very recent past – where land and property mattered to provisioning offspring • Ryan and Jetha (2011) argue that hunter gatherer societies – most of human evolution – shared work, food and mates • It was advantageous to not know who father of a child was • Everyone “made” – and everyone took care of – children • Fathers could easily be replaced and often needed to be • Bonobo, not chimpanzee, is model Making Love Last: Communication and Relationships • Couples w/ relationship distress have poor communication skills • Couples w/ sexual distress have poor general and poor sexual communication skills • Communication skills predict marital satisfaction • Communication training improves marital satisfaction • Use to which communication skills are put is crucial o Criticism o Contempt o Defensiveness o Withdrawal • Effective communicators’ intent and impact match o Intent” what you meant to communicate o Impact: effect of communication • “I language” o avoid mindreading o speak about your own thoughts • Documenting o Provide an illustration o Don’t overgeneralize but also don’t list • Leveling o Say what you mean o Be clear about expectations o Be clear about feelings • Editing o Censor deliberately hurtful o Your aim is to be effective, not sadistic • Listening o Open ended questions o Listen non-defensively o Paraphrase to check out understanding • Validating o View from other person’s perspective o Provide feedback on your own view • Nonverbal communication o Be aware of posture and tone o Does verbal match nonverbal? Sexual and Nonsexual Self-Disclosure • Dating couples were asked about their general and sexual self-disclosure and relationship satisfaction • Nonsexual and sexual self-disclosure roughly similar, at level of “some-but not all- details” • More nonsexual than sexual self-disclosure • More sexual disclosure concerning likes than dislikes • More past partners, more self-disclosure • Women self-disclosed more than men about both sexual and nonsexual issues • Sexual and nonsexual self-disclosure related to sexual satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, and satisfaction w/ communication Attraction and Love (Part Three) – Attachment Relationships • Humans need to form and maintain strong and stable interpersonal relationships • From perspective of evolution, essential for infants to have strong and stable relationships w/ caregivers • From perspective of evolution, essential for adults to form strong and stable relationships w/ pair-bonded others for support Attachment Theory • “model of attachment” that one learns in infancy – one’s expectations concerning relationship stability and strength – will likely transfer and become “model of attachment” that one applies to one’s adult relationships John Bowlby’s Attachment Research World War II • all children develop “internal working model of attachment” that children use to guide their interactions w/ caregivers and w/ adults more generally • nature of children’s “internal working models of attachment” is result of mother-child- environment interaction • nature of children’s “internal working models of attachment” differs across children; it is stable; and it is consequential • Secure attachment o Mental model of caregiver as dependable and reliable person and base from which to explore world and seek comfort when in distress • Anxious attachment o Mental model of caregiver as unreliable source of support and comfort generally and in time of distress. Attachment is to be sought and confirmed continually. • Avoidant attachment o Caregivers do not provide comfort at all. Attachment attempts are frustrating and to be avoided Ainsworth Strange Situation 1. Parent and infant (12-18 months) enter room and play 2. Child explores room w/out parental participation 3. Stranger enters rom and approaches parent 4. Parent quietly leaves room 5. Parent returns and comforts child • Securely attached child o Plays w/ toys while mother is present o Visibly upset when mother levels o Calms down quickly and resumes playing when child’s mother returns o 65% of US middle class children • Anxiously/ambivalently attached child o Clings to mother and less interested in playing o Very upset when mother leaves o Does not calm down when mother returns, and seeks renewed contact but also resists attempts to comfort o 23% of US middle class children • Avoidantly attached child o Plays w/ toys while mother is present o Not very upset when mother leaves o Accepts comforting from stranger o Child looks away upon mother’s return o 12% of US middle class children Hazan and Shaver: Romantic Love as an Attachment Process • “Attachment behavior characterizes human beings from cradle to grave” – Bowlby • Hazan and Shaver explored whether Bowlby and Ainsworth’s theory – designed primarily w/ infant attachment in mind – offers valuable perspective for understanding adult romantic love • Romantic attachment styles o Secure – attachments marked by trust that other will continue to provide love and support o Anxious/ambivalent – fear of abandonment and feeling that one’s needs are not being met o Avoidant – defensive detachment from other Hypothesis 1 • Attachment orientation is expected to be enduring characteristic and adult and childhood attachment orientation should be distributed in similar proportions • US middle class children more often securely attached (approx. 60%) than anxiously/ambivalently attached (approx. 25%) or avoidantly attached (approx. 15%) o Obtained: secure (56%), anxious/ambivalent (19%) and avoidant (25%) Hypothesis 2 • Securely, anxiously/ambivalently, and avoidantly attached individuals should experience their most important love relationships very differently • Securely attached lovers rated their most important love experience as especially happy, friendly, and trusting o experience love as characterized by trust, friendship, and positive emotions o Securely attached lovers’ relationships lasted longer (10.02 years) than those of anxious/ambivalent (4.86 years) or avoidant (5.97 years) persons o Only 6% secure, but 10% anxious/ambivalent and 12% avoidant persons had been divorced • Anxious/ambivalent participants experienced their most important love relationship as involving obsession, desire for reciprocation, emotional highs and lows, and extreme sexual attraction and jealousy o experience love as obsessive struggle to gain affection from lover • Avoidant participants characterized their most important love relationship as involving fear of intimacy, emotional highs and lows, and jealousy and were never most positive on any rating dimension o experience love as marked by fear of closeness Hypothesis 3 • Securely, anxiously/ambivalently, and avoidantly attached individuals should have different expectations of love and of their own “lovableness” • Securely attached individuals should believe in enduring love and see self as worthy of love o Believes that in some relationships, romantic love lasts • Anxious/ambivalent adults will fall in love readily – too readily – but will have considerable trouble making it last o Do not believe head over heels love exists (highest) o Doesn’t believe that intense romantic love lasts o Easy to fall in love and do so often (highest) • Avoidantly attached persons doubt existence and durability of love and believe that they do not need it o Do not believe head over heels love exists o Doesn’t believe that intense romantic love lasts (highest) o Believe that romantic feelings may decrease but can remain intense (lowest) o Believes romantic love lasts (lowest) o Rare to find someone you can truly love (highest) Hypothesis 4 • Securely, anxiously, and avoidantly attached individuals should report different childhood attachment histories • Secure: should remember their mothers as dependably responsive and caring o Reported warm childhood relationships w/ their parents and b/w their parents • Anxious/ambivalent: remember their mothers as inconsistently positive and negative o Reported that their parents were no
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