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Summers Day; Psych 2075 (Maxwell-Smith) - Human Sexuality -- Chapters 10 - 19 & Guest Speakers

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Psychology 2075
Jennifer Silcox

Chapter 10 - Sexuality and the Life Cycle: Childhood andAdolescence ๏ How and when does our sexuality (i.e., our sexual interest, attitudes, and behavior) develop over time? Infancy (0 to 2 years) • Social and psychological experiences: - Attachment - psychological bond that forms between an infant and the mother, father, or other caregiver(s) ○ The basis for attachment theory--that the attachment that the infant forms between their caregivers affect their capacity for emotional attachments in adulthood (ch 12). It can still affect your life later on, particularly your romantic relationships and that it can change over time. but the bond that’s given from their caregivers when their infants it affects them later on. - Learning about boy-girl differences, typically by 2.5 - 3 years old. Fixate their attention on their genitals, and may come to start to learn about girl and boy differences and that their overall experiences is very egocentric, they’re in their own worlds. They’re just curious about the person that’s next to them but they don’t engage with each other socially. • Sexual capacity: - Can be sexually stimulated through care giver touch and through oral stimulation like nursing - Reflex erections, vaginal lubrication possible before they’re born and also during infancy - Do not have adult concepts of sex-- they don’t have the adult sexual scripts and that it’s just pleasurable to them and that they don’t really know what it could actually lead to • Sexual behaviors: - Few infant-infant sexual encounters it’s usually their own individual self play - Masturbation (self-stimulation) ○ masturbation to orgasm (without ejaculation) possible, rare until 2nd year ○ Fondling more common at early stages, rhythmic masturbation emerges typically 2.5 - 3 years (video), it can start later on around 2.5 - 3 years old ○ masturbation ≠ pathology-- it doesn’t affect them later on in life in a harmful way Early Childhood (3 to 7 years) • Social experiences and learning: - Curiosity, more social play, affection/enthusiasm - At ~5 years, learn more about societal restrictions on sex - Modesty develops, interests does not wane--Their interests have increased and that they learned that their parents might not want to talk about sex that much ○ parents often have a hard time talking to kids about sex kids often turn to peers for information (not always accurate)--this is like the blind leading the blind • Sexual behavior (Larsson & Svedin, 2002) - Genital touching continues, masturbation begins for some - Same-sex and other-sex behavior as part of play (e.g., show-and-tell)-- often happens at school • No harmful effects of sexual interactive play (okami et al., 1997)-- since it’s not that uncommon and that boys tend to do it a little bit more than the girls, this is just about curiosity and playing and that certain touches are pleasant - Recognize pleasure, but do not have adult concepts of sex Activity Boys Girls touched genitals (home) 71% 43% used hand to masturbate 28% 18% looked at other child’s genitals 65% 64% showed genitals to other children 34% 20% Preadolescence (8 to 12 years) • Early preadolescence (ages 8 - 9): - Gender segregated play: ○ Males typically play and associate with other males, females associate with other females and that they think that each ones are gross • Late preadolescence (ages 9-12): - Adrenarche (↑ androgens) & onset of puberty--see more pubic hair growing and that their body start to change and that’s when they find out they’re attractive to the opposite sex - Around 10 - 11, more mixed-gender activities, 1st sexual attraction - Begin (short-lived) dating and romantic relationships-- lasts a week or two or maybe a month and that they start to experiment with relationships • Sexual behavior: and that they have sexual fantasies around 10-12 - Experience with masturbation: ~42% of boys, ~20% of girls to orgasm by 12, and that they do it more intentionally and rhythmically - Same-sex behavior: more prevalent among boys, doesn’t really happen with girls. like circle jerks at summer camps where they masturbate each other - Consensual behaviors emerging: talking about sex, hugging, holding hands, kissing, teasing ○ Few report behaviors involving genitals, very few report 1st intercourse. Only about 5% of boys and 1% of girls have engaged in sexual intercourse at this age • Same-sex attraction - Sexual attraction and development parallels heterosexual individuals - Reluctance to date individuals of same gender and that they’re usually in the closet and that they’re very sensitive of what their peers think of them since they’re worried about their reaction ๏ What is/are the actual impact(s) of the mass media on adolescent sexuality? About 55% of adolescents get their information about sex from the media, like tv but now it’s coming from the internet. Mass Media Influences • Who’s watching/reading: - 9 - 13 year olds heavy TV viewers, ○ ~12% boys, 15% girls in grade 9 learn most of their sex information from media, it’s their primary source - older adolescents focus more on music videos, movies, the internet, magazines • Prevalence of sexual behavior in the media - Media content analyses: sexual portrayals ↑ since 1980’s - Skewed, unrealistic content, that most of what you see in the media is focused on the sex, seduction part and that it’s not usually focused on using condoms and contraception and that it’s happening between married couples instead of people who’ve just met ○ Example of Music videos: - Robin Thicke and Pharrell • Discussion: Does media that contain sexual portrayals (e.g., movies, music videos) impact adolescent sexual behavior? If so, how? - Notes: They see a discrepancy between themselves and what they see on the media and that they could be self conscious about themselves since they’re comparing it to them. • What would convince you media does/does not affect adolescent sexuality? - Notes: Don’t censor but just discuss about what’s on the media. • Short-term psychological effects: - Can induce arousal, sexual thoughts like think more about sex - More permissive attitudes - Endorsing and reinforcing sexual stereotypes --like the traditional heterosexual script - Negative impacts among women: ○ Self-objectification - it can lead to people being depressed and seeing yourself as a sexual object and that yourself is defined through sexual behavior ○ Dissatisfaction with their bodies--watching 30 mins of the media, they could make themselves feel less satisfied about it Notes: Negative relation such that more sexually explicit material on the media and the younger age they have sex at, because their could be a third factor that affects their decision in to having sex when they’re younger. It could also lead to sex at a younger age because of watching media because of the poor relationship between your parents or that you’re curious. Or you have had sex at a younger age and that you’re just curious to watch more media on what sex could have an influence on. Summary: Inconsistent results regarding behavior and early initiation of intercourse. Adolescence (13 to 19 Years) • Factors in sexual development: - Biological (Chapter 5): ○ Body growth and genital mutation ○ Production of sex hormones (e.g. testosterone) ↑ - Developmental: ○ Transition from childhood to adulthood - starting to rehearse and take on the responsibilities of an adult ○ Potential for conflicting standards: parents and community (think you should only have it when you’re married) vs. media (saying it’s fun, etc) vs. peer group vs. partner - Can color perceptions of sexual behavior - feel guilty about having sex but at the same time it feels good • Romantic relationships - Serial monogamy - while in a relationship the partners are exclusive - Other relationships: Friends with benefits, no need to call the next day and no sleeping over; hooking up like one night stands and never talk to them again • Same-sex behavior: - ~10% of men, 6% of women have same sex partner in high school - Same-sex behavior during adolescence does not necessarily lead to LGB orientations in later years • Double standards - females are more likely to be and that there’s a pretty powerful influence on them - Sexually objectified, however, compared with men like their sexual capacity, how good looking they are and that at the same time they’re much harder on women for infidelity by being not able to be faithful to their partners ○ Labeled negatively for their sexual behaviors ○ Given less tolerance for infidelity • Differences in preferences (Table 10.3) - Fewer females than male adolescents approve of necking, petting and having sex on a first date or after a few dates • Masturbation - Boys: sharp increase (~89%), 2-3 times/week, less during periods of sexual intercourse. More likely to do it when they’re not in a relationship. - Girls: gradual increase (~48%), 1 time/month, more during periods sexual intercourse. When they’re in a relationship they masturbate more. • Heterosexual behaviors - Progression of consensual experiences among males and females (Table 10.1) Notes: men tend to have more sexually permissive attitudes compared to women Notes: They’ve done everything except sex for gr 11. It increases in incidence as people get older ๏ How do people typically describe their first experience(s) with sexual intercourse? First Intercourse • Age: - Typically 17 years, ± 2 - varies between ethnic groups, religion • Context: - Ontario study: 60% with serious dating partner, 20% causal dating partner, 16% friend/acquaintance , 4% someone just met • Decision to engage in first intercourse: - Correlations: Liberal attitudes, alcohol/marijuana use, poor parental relationships; having poor relationships with parents is correlated with having sex at a younger age (11, 12 or 13) and also with other negative outcomes like depression, low self-esteem, feeling like they were pressured, perceptions of virginity (if people think it’s respected then they’ll wait longer to have sex, or if it’s a stigma where they can’t get rid of it then they’ll do it earlier), peers - ***sexual activities mostly based on interaction between partners ○ Motives: love/affection for partner (more females than males), physical pleasure (more males than females), peer pressure, curiosity • Fireworks/earthquakes? - Emotionally - normal to find their first time unsatisfying ○ Positive, though results vary - men feel more satisfied and greater levels of pleasure and women will feel more guilt ○ Those in a close relationship report stronger emotional reactions - Physically - experienced orgasm? ○ 62% of men ○ 6% of women ๏ Compared with previous generations, how have adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior changed or remained similar? Very little of sexual research and that there were more sexually permissive trends happening back then Intergenerational Trends inAdolescent Sexuality • More permissive attitudes toward: - Masturbation: Graham said that it was horrible and that it was like a disease and that you were dirty. John Kellogg told people how to live and have a healthy dietary lifestyle without having any masturbation. But now people are prescribing masturbation for some cures - Sex before marriage - more poeple have been more accepting for sex before marriage Table 10.4 Approval of premarital sex 1975 1995 2005 Nationally 68% 80% 80% By age: 18-34 90 89 77 35-54 65 85 87 55 & over 42 62 75 -Notes: Over the generations, we approve of it more than before. In 2005 people aren’t as opened compared to 1995. • More sex, more sex before marriage: - 1940s (Kinsey): 33% of females, 71% of males before marriage - 1990s: 70% of females and 78% of males • Marriage trends and changes - 1960: average age for males ~25; for females ~22 - 1998: average age for males 29.6; for females 27.6 - 2003: average age for males 30.6; for females 28.5 • Sexual techniques - Compared with Kinsey sample: ○ Masturbation occurs at earlier ages, more women masturbate than they used to, people are coming around to the idea that it doesn’t leave to any diseases ○ Overall gender disparities similar more men than women have masturbated till they orgasm and that it hasn’t really changed. ○ Increase in oral sex and variety of positions used. Back then thought that oral sex led people to get pregnant or STI’s • Same-sex activity - No significant increase in reporting of same-sex partner since 1970s - More permissive (among more females than males), however...overall people have become more accepting on this behavior ○ some lingering naïveté and negativity about safe sex behavior; more inclined to discriminate and be prejudice against people who are LGB ○ higher risk of suicide among LGB, especially when they’re young than heterosexual individuals • First intercourse occurs at earlier age - Fig. 10.8: proportion of individuals who have had first intercourse by age 15, 17, 19 has increased since 1940s Notes:Awhole lot more people had sex for the first time by younger ages ๏ What leads adolescents and young adults to make risky sexual decisions? Like when you’re drunk or when you’re not using any contraceptions or if you’re sending sexually explicit photos of yourself through your phone Adolescent Condom Use • Used at the beginning of relationships...They’ll start using it at the beginning, after when they become more exclusive with them they’ll start using birth control or other contraceptives - Many assume a low chance of contracting HIV • Condom use increases when users have positive attitudes, behavior endorsed by peers - What about effect(s) of alcohol? • MacDonald et al., 2000a, 2000b: - no differences between individuals who were sober or intoxicated if they were not sexually aroused - Aroused individuals were more likely to engage in unprotected sex if they were intoxicated - **intoxicated individuals more likely to engage in protected sex than sober individuals if inhibiting cues were present, like having a stamp on the person’s hand like safe sex or aid kills. This theory is known as alcohol myopia and that if you are drunk and you have less control of your faculties and fixate on one particular stimulate as your anchor and if there’s an inhibiting cue there then you’re more likely to focus on it. Chapter 11- Sexuality and the Life Cycle:Adulthood ๏ What are the prevalent romantic lifestyle choices in adulthood, and how do they affect our sexual behavior? Varies quite a bit and the romantic choices that we make during adulthood have an obvious impact on our sex life and also our age and developmental process Singlehood- around 20’s • aka “never-married” • Most common lifestyle for those in their 20’s: - 2006 vs. 1971 census: More single people • How Canadian adults feel about being single: Word Females Males Total Freedom 32.6% 29.8% 31.1% Lonely 12.4% 17.5% 15.1% Fun 14.3% 15.4% 14.9% -Notes: They may think it’s overwhelming when being single 14.5% Singles • Single lifestyles: - Serial monogamists - Steady partner with brief extra-dyadic flings - openly acknowledged and supported could lead to open marriages or open relationships - Single by choice - focusing on their careers and don’t want to be all tied up in relationships - Casual sex - Celibate ○ Voluntary: religion, fear of STIs, refocus their energy on other pursuits like their career or other aspects of their life like relationships with family and see sex as a distraction ○ Involuntary: little experience with intimacy when growing up and didn’t master the developmental transitions when going through as an adolescent and that they might not be able to relate very well to another adult, work/geography where there’s not very much opportunity to meet many people The Singles Scene • Venues for finding partners: - Bars, blind dates, newspapers, social clubs, religious groups - Others: speed dating, online dating sites - there was a stigma 15 years ago related to online dating site, it’s now become a billion dollar industry, can help drill down their preferences really well. LGB are more likely to use these sites and meet them compared to heterosexual people. Also older people are starting to use them, have fairly good incomes and are males and divorced New Generations of Dating Web Sites • “Scientific method” of matching: - eHarmony: matches couples based on relative similarity of attitude, value and personality domains ○ Advisors: social psychologists - matches couples based on traits associated with hormonal activity (e.g., calmness, sympathy) - proved that they’ll more likely have a chemistry bond between them if it’s associated with hormonal activity ○ Advisors: Helen Fisher, sociobiologist - matches couples based on similarity (e.g., impulsivity, predictability) and differentiation of certain traits (e.g., flexibility, decision-making style) ○ Advisors: Schwartz, sociologist • Marital statistics for online dating sites: - In Canada: 27% formed a romantic relationship, 3% married - In Britain: 30% formed a romantic relationship, 9% married • Discussion: are scientific online dating sites helpful in creating satisfying long-term relationships? It’s a good venue but it doesn’t mean it’s really less effective • Other things to consider: - You still have to talk to the other person - Consensus often predicts stability - like if you don’t agree on something at first, the other person could overlook it and decide to stay with you still - Research on impact of couple similarity dimensions on relationship satisfaction still young not quite as high as they’re portrayed in some ads. Some find that some should have opposites but over time personality similarity will start to factor in and makes a difference compared to just being attractive to them - Couples may devalue importance of dimensions with low similarity over time ๏ Why (and how) do people get married/form long-term unions? Most people desire intimacy Cohabitation • Common-law relationship - 2006 census: 16% of Canadians in a common-law relationship ○ cohabitation has increased since 1980’s (was 6%) - On average: 2/3 of cohabiting couples eventually marry within two years - sometimes they’ll use it to lead to them like stepping stones for young people ○ Some are older, choose cohabitation over marriage like they’ll have kids or just came out of legal issues so they choose to co-habitat • More sex! - Having sex more than 1/week: 71% of cohabiting couples, 60% of married couples, and 42% of single people (Fig 11.2b) and will form a better opinion to see how the other person stays and can decide if they want to stay with that in the long term or not • More divorce/separation! - Multiple studies have shown cohabiting vs non-cohabiting couples are more likely to separate - Reasons: ○ Interdependence, liberal, less religious, sexually permissive and tend to see a divorce as a more okay legitimate options ○ pre-engagement cohabiters fare worse than post-engagement or post-marital cohabiters - people who lived together before engaged were more likely to split up compared to the groups who got married or engaged first before living with each other ○ Inertia: some cohabiters ‘slide’into marriage, since you’re already attached to the hip with doing everything and that the thought of splitting up is exhausting and your parents like them more than you like them which could be tough to leave Marriage • Common among all human societies - In Canada: 95% of adults marry, 91% expect children; 90% of adults aged 50-69 have or are married • “The state of being united to a person of the opposite sex as husband or wife in a consensual and contractual relationship recognized by law” Same-sex Marriage • 2000 Supreme Court ruling: traditional definition of marriage discriminatory - 2001: Kevin Bourassa and Joe Varnell first gay couple married in Canada - 2003: Bourassa & Varnell marriage legally recognized in ON - 2005: Canadian Parliament passed same-sex legislation ○ Canada: same-sex marriage = opposite sex marriage ○ Other countries: Netherlands, Belgium, SouthAfrica • 2006 Census: 7500 same-sex marriages in Canada Why Do People Get Married? • Signifies one’s commitment • Consistent with moral values • Want children to have married parents • Creation of one’s own family • Legal protections/rights Types of Marriage • 2 major types: - Monogamy - two people - Polygamy- more than one person: polygyny - man has multiple wives is a sign of following their religious teaching and principles and polyandry - a women with multiple husbands * Types of Marriage • Motives: - Monogamy ○ In some cases, religious ○ Social status and wealth it shows that the men are able to provide for one or maybe two wives ○ Societies with shortage of men - Polygyny and Polyandry ○ Societies with shortage of women ○ Regions with infertile lands that want to decrease birth rate ○ Fraternal polyandry: maintain family estates over generations Nontraditional Marriages • Open marriage: spouses agree they can have sex and emotional relationships with other partners, not just about sex - no differences in longevity between open and exclusive marriage • Polyamory and Group marriage: 3+ partners exclusively and not open marriage - rare, high failure rate: ○ Multiple habit adaptation ○ Legal issues: paternity, children and inheritance ○ Jealousy ○ Managing money • Swinging: sharing sexual experiences with others - mate swapping/co-marital sex/consensual adultery - No emotional intimacy with partners and only sex - Characteristics: ○ Politically diverse more conservative and not very liberal ○ Relatively high education, income - Reported Motives: ○ Variety ○ Pressure/excitement ๏ How do our sex lives relate to our marital satisfaction longevity? Your sex life mirrors your romantic life, it could be with your experiences or ability Sexual Satisfaction • Yeh et al., 2006: Sexual Satisfaction → marital quality - Sexual satisfaction and marital quality → marital longevity • Satisfaction: the feeling we’re left with after considering pros/cons of our sexual relationship - Not just physical pleasure/absence of problems - Majority of married couples satisfied and that sex happens often at the beginning and then after it’ll start to decrease, could be because of kids, age - Married couples today more sexually satisfied than pre-sex-revolution samples which is around Kinsey’s time Marital Sexuality • In comparison with pre-sex-revolution samples (30s, 40s): - Longer sex with greater variety - More oral stimulation - More sexual positions ○ Female superior positions more popular - More satisfied - Frequency of sex hasn’t changed - Age-related decline in frequency hasn’t changed: ○ Physical changes like people getting older ○ Habituation to partner like getting used to their partner ○ Arrival of children, worried that their children are going to interrupt them Sexual Satisfaction • Factors related to sexual satisfaction: - Interpersonal exchange model ○ Many rewards, few costs ○ More rewards and fewer costs than expected ○ Equal rewards/costs with one’s partner ○ Happiness with non-sexual aspects - We’re happy when our partners are happy - Open-ended interviews ○ Acceptance of one’s sexuality ○ Ability to give/receive partner pleasure ○ Awareness of partner’s preferences ○ Communication Sexual Satisfaction and Relationship Satisfaction - Discussion Exercise: Divorce • ~30% to 40% of Canadian first marriage end in divorce - most likely after 3-4 years of marriage • Divorce rate has increased over time - Legislative changes is seen as a more acceptable option - Women’s economic independence - Social acceptability Post-Marital Sex • Most divorced women and men return to having an active sex life within one year, but not widows: - Trauma of loss - Social support of in-laws and friends - Loyalty to partner - Widows more financially secure • Sexual satisfaction of widows and divorcees: - Less satisfied compared with cohabiters, never-married individuals ๏ How does our sexuality develop and change as we get older? Sex and OlderAdults Preamble • Resistance to the idea of older adults as sexual beings: - Negative perceptions: elderly as unattractive, uninterested, and incapable - Youth-orientated culture which is associated with attractive and interests and the elderly get ridiculed enough for old people have sex - Sex for reproduction, not fun - Parents/grandparents + sex = icky • Elderly may internalize these attitudes: - E.g., “sex causes heart attacks,” “ sex saps vitality or life force” - it was good when you had kids but could lead to death which isn’t true Climacteric and Menopause • Climacteric: period of 15 - 20 years, decline in function of ovaries, transition to not being able to reproduce or not have children anymore - Menopause: event during climacteric, end of menstruation for women ○ Typically begins at age of 50, but can occur anywhere between 40 and 60 • Recall ---menstrual cycle: - Follicular: pituitary secretes FSH → signals ovary to bring egg to maturity, follicle releases estrogen, which stimulates endometrium to grow - Ovulation: high estrogen → ... pituitary ↑ LH which riggers follicle to open and release egg - Luteal: follicle becomes corpus luteum → ↑ progesterone → ... when corpus luteum degenerates, sharp ↓ of estrogen and progesterone - Menstruation: shedding of endometrium • As ovaries age, less responsive to FSH - Less able to mature and release egg - Eggs, estrogen, progesterone ↓ (hormonal changes) ○ Vagina, labia majora lose elasticity, shrink because of the decrease in hormones ○ Less lubrication produced with arousal • Orgasm changes: - Muscle tone, spasms of orgasm decrease - Orgasms decline in frequency and intensity - HRT (hormone replacement therapies) --treatments of estrogen and progesterone-- may help • ...but does quality of orgasm change? - Increased friction may be more painful...or pleasurable, could be because as they get older they have more free time and nothing to really worry about - Sexually active older women more more sexually satisfied Andropause - far more gradual • Decline in testosterone, sperm - Begins at 30-40 - Erections slower, less firm - Longer refractory period - Volume and force of ejaculation decrease, time to achieve ejaculation increases • These changes not necessarily negative - Greater control, can prolong intercourse Sexual Patterns of Older Adults • Frequency of sex declines with age • Substantial numbers of older individuals continue to have active sex lives - Some manage to increase frequency of sex over time • Decline in frequency does not mean a decline in satisfaction - Most sexually active adults are satisfied with their sex life - sexual activity may be seen as a less, but not unimportant aspect of their lives • Sexual decline/satisfaction associated with aging can be traced to - Good physical/mental health ○ Good health → sex continues ○ Poor health a barrier - Availability of a partner • Sex among elder adults linked to... - “Use it or lose it”: less genital atrophy - tends to be unpleasant and painful if they don’t do it that often, more sex helps alleviate it - Better mental health - Longevity like living longer Chapter 12 - Attraction, Love, and Communication ๏ How do people become sexually/romantically attracted to others? Attraction • Proximity influences: - Likelihood of meeting - Mere exposure effect: ○ Tendency to like something/someone after repeated exposure - E.g., (below) students choice of dorm companions DISTANCE % mentioned as companions 1 door away 41% of the time 2 doors away 22% 3 doors away 16% 4 doors away 10% - - Limits: quality of interaction, if they irritate you over and over again you’re more likely to dislike them even more • Homophily: - tendency for people to have contact with others equal in social status • How important is homophily? % of Canadians who prefer to have a spouse who shares - Religious views: 46% - Ethnic background: 34% • How important is homophily? - Inter-ethnic/racial marriages: relatively few, but increasing ○ ~5% of all marriages in the U.S. ○ ~4% of all marriages in Canada ○ More common in urban areas (Vancouver, Toronto, Montreal), among younger generations • The matching phenomenon: - People tend to choose partners that are also similar to themselves in attitudes, intelligence and attractiveness - Reinforcing • More overall support for similarity → attraction - Exception: dominant vs. submissive interpersonal styles, sometimes if it’s the same then it could be problematic • PhysicalAttractiveness - it’s a halo affect where it’s associated with more positive attitudes • “What is Beautiful is Good”: - Presumed to be interesting, socially skilled, and reasonably intelligent - Examples: ○ Teachers rated attractive children as smarter ○ Less severe fines/penalties for attractive suspects/defendants in Texas and Canada ○ Attractive MBAreceived higher salary ○ Moms more attentive, playful with attractive babies, even babies look at more physically attractive people than non attractive people • Sexual relationships: gender differences exist, men tend to place it more on physical attractiveness than women • The Interpersonal Marketplace - Attraction determined by how much we think we can offer and “buy” - Most people tend to know their relative attractiveness level - Desirability = Physical attractiveness X Probability ofAcceptance ○ Barb = 5/10, Bill = 9/10, George = 6/10 »Barb’s chances of getting Bill: 2/10; George: 8/10 ○ Desirability of Bill = 9 x 2 = 18 ○ Desirability of George = 6 x 8 = 48 • Prior experience with relationships or sex - Some experience, but not extensive amount of past sexual experience judged as more attractive • Is playing hard-to-get effective? - Walster et al., 1973: men recruited for computer dating program ○ Study 1: no difference in liking between easy vs hard to get woman ○ Study 2: woman who was hard to get for others viewed as most attractive, so like selective dating..hard to get for others but not to a certain one. Explaining Attraction • Reinforcement theory: - Hedonistic desire to receive positive reinforcements and avoid costs of punishments - Evidence ○ Explains variety of phenomena ○ May be more about self-validation • Sexual Strategies Theory - Evolutionary pressures encouraged different mating strategies for men and women and be more selective. Men want somebody that’s physically attractive and is healthy and women want somebody who can support them with resources to care for their children and men want somebody who’s able to care for them. - Evidence: ○ Gender differences and similarities for some stated preferences across most/all cultures ○ But stated preferences don’t always reflect actual preferences, men’s and women’s values becoming similar. More gender similarities than there are differences ๏ What are the psychological processes that maintain romantic relationships? Intimacy • Intimacy: - Level of commitment and positive affective, cognitive, and physical closeness one experiences with a partner - Self-disclosure: telling a personal information about oneself to the other person, particularly important to build a relationship • Importance for relationships: - Encourages partner to do the same (typically) - Enhances sexual and relationship satisfaction and longevity - Associated with higher self-esteem and confidence in relationship • Theory of Social Penetration - Breadth, then depth of discussion topics increase over time ○ Early relationships: reciprocity, want to be able to talk and that there’s give and take ○ Later relationships: support by showing it after talking about intimate feelings - How break-ups occur: ○ Reducing breadth/depth ○ Reducing only breadth Discussion • What is love? • What does it mean to like versus love someone? Triangular Theory of Love Sternberg (1986) • Intimacy (affect) - emotional closest • Passion (motivation) - is the drive and the more physical aspect and attraction like the chemistry • Decision/Commitment (cognitive) - Going to continue to date this person and grow this relationship and that you’re going to marry this person and that once you’re married, you’re still going to stay with this person no matter what Notes: Intimacy has very low levels of passion and commitment is like friends. Passion alone is that there’s a very strong physical components. Commitment alone with none of the others is empty love where they don’t really talk to each other. Romantic Love is like romeo and Juliet where they’re really physically connected and feeling really in love. Fatuous Love get intimately involved very quickly and that they move in right away and that the success of that varies and it’s known as foolish love since they’re getting into things very quickly without establishing their commitment and love very well. Companionate love is that they love each other but the passion is somewhat decreasing like there’s not much of sex or passion going on. Consummate love is that the ones who have intimacy, passion and commitment are the most satisfied but it’s the hardest to maintain over time. • Predictions: - commitment increases gradually at first and then grows more rapidly as a relationship develops - intimacy would decrease over time as couples might hit a ceiling or reach a limit with the amount of information they can self-disclose - sexual satisfaction would be most closely related with passion • Evidence: mostly true except - behavioral, but not other measures of intimacy decline - intimacy is most closely related with sexual behavior and satisfaction when you’re talking about long term relationships and marriage Attachment Theory • The emotional bond with our caregiver informs our adult relationship - “Working Model” of a close relationship • Self vs. other comparisons Notes: Preoccupied - want to be together with their partner all the time and clingy and get jealous easily. Dismissing - learn to fend for themselves, feel like they can’t depend on other people and avoid other relationships. They may be fine to be in a relationship but is a little resistant for them to get too close. Fearful - completely avoidance of a relationships because they’re afraid of being attached • Insights from attachment theory - Adults bring their own personal history of love and attachments to any relationship - Mismatch of attachment styles may cause conflict in relationships • Evidence and new research: - Attachment style can affect individuals’/couples’interaction and satisfaction ○ Insecure attachment linked with sex at a younger age, more partners - Attachment style affected by family and peers - Can have different attachment styles with family vs partner and can change how you interact with your partner Passionate/Companionate Love • Passionate love: - high arousal, intense attraction and feeling, preoccupation, physical closeness • Companionate love - trust, caring, respect, friendship, commitment, and self-disclosure - Passionate love leads to companionate love • Biological indicators of love: - During early stages of relationship, presence of partner releases ○ Dopamine: ↑ energy and focus; ↓ need for food/sleep ○ Oxytocin: ↑ pleasure and satisfaction; ○ Prolactin: ↑ following orgasm in humans, contributes to pair-bonding in animals; • Biological indicators of love: - Transition to companionate love: developing tolerance, balancing constant euphoric stimulation ○ Oxytocin and vasopressin associated with pair bonding, linking partner with rewards - “What is Sexy” (National Geographic) Arousal and Love • Two-Component Theory of Love: 2. Physiological arousal - maybe label it as love or attraction 3. Label the arousal “love” - Potential for misattribution of arousal: ○ Men who ran in place report greater attraction than men who had no exercised ○ Men more likely to contract an attractive confederate after crossing a scary vs. short bridge • Can similar processes work with more established relationships?: “yes” - Engaging in novel / arousing activities with one’s partner related to increases in relationship satisfaction - Couples who engage in exciting task in the lab reported more satisfaction than couples given mundane task or no task reported the highest level of relationship satisfaction - Couples given exciting activities over 10 weeks report more satisfaction than couples given pleasant non-exciting activities, or no activities Encouraging and Maintaing Love • “Before one can find love, one must love thyself” Trust and Dependency Regulation • Relationships are risky, people seek reassurance - want to be intimate to other people but we’re sensitive to rejection. If our partners feel the same way about us and then we’re more happy about the relationship and also about ourselves • We adjust our view in our relationship in self-protective ways - Dr.Holmes, UW: when we think our partners perceive us positively and are committed → we evaluate partners positively and value the relationship more ○ Self-protective mechanism: protecting from rejection - *Can our self-views turn self-protective practices into self-destructive practices? How? ○ E.g., women who anticipated rejection from their partners elicited less-accepting (negative) behaviors from their partners, it was reciprocated in a way Self-Esteem, Trust and Relationship Quality • People with low self-esteem tend to have less satisfying romantic relationships • Sense of security or trust in the relationship requires: 1. Partner is a good person capable of fulfilling one’s relationship needs 2. Belief in the partner’s perceived regard and that they respect you a great deal and have love for you Notes: There’s a disconnect between people who have low self esteem and perceive their love while the actual love is higher. • 200 married and dating couples: - Positive self-views associated with more accurate perceptions of partner regard - *Perceptions of LSE individuals inaccurate, affected their optimism for relationship Perceived Love Models of Self Relationship Quality Perceptions of Partner Notes: If you have low self esteem you think that your partner doesn’t love you as much and then it causes you to undermine the relationship quality Summary • “Ingredients” of happy coupleness: 1. good listening and communication skills 2. effective problem-solving skills 3. many positive interactions, few negative interactions 4. realistic expectations - some people think it’s always positive and that when they get into fights they might be disappointed 5. positive interpretations of their partner’s behavior 6. consensus view of roles and responsibilities within the relationship • Relationship satisfaction sexual satisfaction (strongly related) • Sexual satisfaction --> marital quality (strongly related) - Sexual satisfaction and marital quality --> marital longevity ๏ How can couples overcome problems in their relationships? --Didn’t cover from here till end! Communication and Sex • Communication and relationships - positive communication is important in developing and maintaining intimate relationships Discussion • What are some examples of destructive communication from the video? • How could they have communicated more effectively? Being an Effective Communicator • Good messages • Editing • Listening • Validating • Nonverbal communication • Accentuating the positive Sexual Self-Disclosure • Self-disclosure - telling personal things about yourself - Closely related to satisfaction with the relationship - Helps a relationship progress through learning - Increases intimacy - Leads to reciprocity Chapter 13 - Gender and Sexuality ๏ What is gender? ๏ Where does gender come from? Definitions • Gender: “the state of being male or female” (p.2) • Sex: “[a preference to] sexual anatomy or sexual behavior]” (p. 2) Terminology • Gender identity - Our awareness/sense of being male or female • Gender identification - Centrality and importance of gender to one’s self concept, affiliation with members of one’s gender • Gender assignment - The gender we have been anatomically assigned • Gender role - set of norms that define how members of one gender thought to behave • (Gender) Stereotype - Generalization about members of a group (men or women) the at distinguishes them from other groups - Schemas about members of a group Definitions Revisited • “Sex” - biological, anatomical • “Gender” - Psychological, social, cultural - Gender: one’s personal, social and legal status as a male or female ๏ How does gender affect people’s interpersonal sexual interactions with others? Gender Schema Theory • Gender schema: set of ideas that we associate with males and females - Influences how we process and interpret information (other people) - Can lead to perceiving people according to masculine/feminine traits • Scripts: cognitive frameworks for how people are expected to behave in social situations, expectations about how men and women should behave Traditional Sexual Scripts (TSS) • Males oversexed, females undersexed • Sexual experiences enhances males’but not females status • Males expected to be “sexperts,” and know how to please every single one of them, and females expected to be sexually naive and are there to just go along with the male leadership • Males supposed to be the initiators in sexual situations like the one’s who approach • Women are expected to be sexual gatekeepers and place limits on sexual activity - What kinds of influence could this have on romantic relationships? It could affect the women’s view on how she’s supposed to act and that she might be hesitant and that there’s not equal power between men and women Sources of TSS: Socialization • Parents - Buying gender-consistent gifts - Rewarding gender-consistent behavior, punishing gender-inconsistent behavior ○ E.g., Encouraging assertive (nurturant) behavior from boys (girls), punishing boys harshly if they act feminine in anyway. Talk more to girls than the boys, and they encourage boys to be more assertive and girls to be more talkative. • Peer groups - Pressure to conform with gender roles ○ E.g., teasing based on dress, demeanor Effects of Media Influence Regarding TSS • 3 -6 year olds who viewed more TV had more stereotyped ideas about gender roles than children who view less TV • Effect of TV access - Children in a town with little access to TV showed less gender-stereotyped attitudes than children in a town with access to TV - As TV was introduced to children in 1st town, 2 years later, their gender-stereotyped attitudes on par with those children’s attitudes from 2nd town • When children exposed to media with non-stereotyped gender behaviors, their gender stereotypes weaken Do we actually follow the TSS? • Evidence that we do: - 1988 Compass poll of Canadians: ○ ‘Who has greatest needs?’: ★ “men do” (58%0, “women do”, (9%), “equal” (~25%) ○ ‘When a couple decides to have sex, who gets them in the mood first?’ ★ “the man” (60%0, “the woman” (20%) - Women may be more likely to under-report their amount of sexual activity, consistent about being under sexed and being naive about sex - Men more likely than women to initiate sex in relationships • Evidence that we don’t: - Men and women equally likely to refuse an initiation from their partner, use similar strategies to change their reluctant partner’s mind - Majority of both genders negatively evaluate both women and men that had too many sexual partners - Open-ended interviews of couples -- some women wanted men to know that women’s sex drive can equally be as strong as men’s Is the TSS harmful? • Men or women who adhered to traditional masculine stereotypes more likely to engage in unprotected sexual behavior • Relation with sexual coercion: - Sample of middle and high school and university boys in New Brunswick ○ 11% believed it is acceptable to be sexually coercive with a girlfriend (more reported to be coercive with your girlfriend if you believed it) ○ Boys who had these beliefs more likely to be sexually aggressive Effects of Violating Stereotypes • Rudman and Fairchild (2004) - male and female Ps competed against and lost to a same-sex or opposite-sex confederate on a computer game task that was masculine (football knowledge) or feminine (child development knowledge) - for subsequent task, given opportunity to help partner by leaving good clues or hurt partner by leaving bad clues (sabotage) Results - Men showed backlash against women in the “masculine” domain. Men didn’t like losing to women for the gam they were supposed to win. • Women also showed backlash against men in “feminine” domain! Effects of Violating Gender Stereotypes • Effects of male and female leadership • Male/female accomplices instructed to assume leadership roles while working as a group to solve a business problem • Participants nonverbal behavior observed, ratings of ‘other group members’collected • Results: - Group members reacted positively to male, negatively to female leaders, not only for verbal but also for their body language - Female leaders rated as more bossy, dominant and emotional than male leaders ๏ Are there gender differences in terms of sexuality? ๏ What causes gender differences? Gender Differences in Sexuality • Masturbation - Men masturbate more frequently/earlier in life • Attitudes towards causal sex - Men are more permissive attitudes ○ Women more likely to mention sex acceptable only in context of a serious, committed relationship ○ Some change? Motives for having sex ★ men and women equally likely to endorse emotional and commitment motives ★ although women more likely to mention love, men more likely to physical features • Romance? - It appears that men are more romantic: ○ Men fall in love sooner ○ Less eager to let go of a failing relationship ○ 3x more likely to kill themselves if affair ends ○ More likely to believe in love at first sight ○ Females more practical • Consistency of orgasm - men more likely to have an orgasm during intercourse or masturbating, whereas 30% women said they had an orgasm during sex • Sexual tendencies and focus across lifespan: - Person-centered: emphasizing relationship and emotions ○ younger women and older men - Body-centered: emphasizing body and physical pleasure, attractiveness ○ younger men and older women when they get older (30-40), they get quicker orgasms and are more responsive to sex - Trend of older women dating younger men? ○ Only among celebrities. Women tend to stay and find older men • Sex drive - Men think about and fantasize sex more, desire more partners, more frequent intercourse during cohabiting partners - Clark and Hatfield (1989): %Agreeing To Request MEN WOMEN Type of Request Go on Date 50 56 Go Back toApt. 69 6 • Arousal to erotica: Bed 75 0 - Assessed self-report and physiological measures of arousal - Participants listened to erotic (just sex), romantic, romantic-erotic (both romantic elements and sex), or neutral stories. Findings: ○ erotic and erotic romantic tapes were most arousing for men and women (slightly more so for women_ ○ neither men nor women were aroused brely romantic tape ○ women sometimes unaware of their own arousal - Lack of physiological awareness among women observed by others ○ Awareness enhanced when women told to focus on their genitals for signs of arousal because for men it’s easy to spot since it’s an erection Reasons for Gender Differences • Biological - Anatomy ○ Males response is more noticeable - Hormones ○ Testosterone (entirely) responsible for sex drive? Consider: ○ Activating effects more complex for humans than animals ○ Women’s cells may be more sensitive to testosterone - Evolution ○ Parental Investment Theory ○ More investing sex choosier ○ Women seek long-term commitment, men seek multiple short-term mating opportunities • Cultural - Socialization and the double standard: declining but lingering ○ Men encouraged to be more active ○ Sexually passive women have more difficulty becoming aroused, report lower sexual satisfaction • Artificial? - Participants asked about their sexual attitudes and behaviors in one of 3 conditions ○ Anonymous - alone in a room by themselves ○ Bogus-pipeline - hook people up to this machine and it looks realistic and tells them that the machine can tell when they’re lying ○ Exposure-threat - filling out all the information and they have to hand the paper back to the research assistant while the assistant is standing over them ๏ What are the factors that contribute to identifying as transsexual? ๏ How do people go through the stages of gender reassignment? Trans Terminology • Gender dysphoria - incongruity between physical sex and internal sense of gender • Transgender - people who cross the strict lines of the sex they were assigned at birth: - Two-spirit persons: people with alternative gender and sex expressions like this other gender category - Intersex: persons born with mixed indicators of biological sex - Cross dressers: dress in clothing traditionally associated with the other sex - Transgenderists: living P/T or F/T as a member of the opposite sex - Transsexuals: individuals whose physical sex does not match their gender identity ○ Feel “trapped” ○ Male-to-female transsexuals (MtFs) - male genitals + female gender identity and is considered a she and is attracted to men who aren’t considered gay ○ Female-to-male transsexuals (FtMs) - female genitals + male gender identity, feels like they’re trapped in a girls body when they feel like they should be male Transsexuals • Incongruity from early childhood - Most feel their actual gender is the opposite - Others identify their gender as less fixed ○ Some cultures live in three-gendered societies (e.g., Guevodoces in Dominican Republic) • Gender identity and sexual orientation should not be confused What Causes Transsexualism? • No definite causes are known • Biological explanations: - Irregularities during critical periods in prenatal development for the brain: ○ Differences between males and MtFs in the limbic system ○ Small region of the hypothalamus larger in males than women and MtFs • Environmental explanations: - parents reward/encourage behavior: ○ Some children (diagnosed) with gender identity disorders reported being treated like other gender ○ But this experience not shared among all transexuals The Gender Reassignment Process • Gender assignment is complex and proceeds in several stages: - Counseling ○ Verify true gender dysphoric, not just poorly adjusted - Real life test ○ 1 - 2 years as person of desired gender that they want to become - Hormone therapy ○ Estrogen for MtF: body feminization, skin soften, facial hair growth and erections decrease ○ Androgens for FtM: voice deepens, some facial hair growth, muscles and clitoris increase ○ Surgery (irreversible) Gender Reassignment Surgery • Male-to-Female surgery - Penis, scrotum, testes removed - Sensory nerves retained and refashioned: ○ Vagina lined with skin of penis constructed which is sexually sensitive ○ Glans of penis = clitoris - New clitoris is very sensitive and capable of orgasm • Female-to-Male - Ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, breasts removed - Constructing penis: ○ Arod, skin from genital/forearm ○ From enlarged clitoris (Metoidioplasty), taken androgens for a long time and the clitoris has been enlarged ○ No ejaculation, erection possible only with implants - Orgasm possible through nerve endings of clitoris Outcomes of Surgery • Mostly successful - Outcomes for MtF vs. FtM Chapter 14 - Sexual Orientation: Facts and Fiction ๏ What is sexual orientation? Definition • Sexual identity - one’s self-identity as homosexual, heterosexual or bisexual • Sexual orientation - one’s erotic and emotional orientation toward members of one’s own or other gender Prevalence of LGB Individuals • How do you ask people to describe their sexual orientation? - Categorical vs. continuum approaches - Identity vs. behavior approaches Notes: Combined elements of the experience and how people saw themselves, whether it was exclusively heterosexual or homosexual • 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCH); 2004-5 National Survey of Family Growth: Notes: Exclusively homosexual is usually 1-2% Asexual Individuals • Large national surveys: ~1-1.5% self-identify as asexual • New topic, mixed findings on asexuals’ (not attracted to male or female) sexual experience: - Fewer sexual partners, later debut of sexual activity like experiencing things later on, less frequent activity with current partner but they do have relationships - May report lower levels of arousal - ...however, even though they weren’t a big fan of pornography, asexual women did not differ in their physiological arousal to erotic stimuli compared with lesbian, bisexual or heterosexual women - As likely to masturbate as general population - Still get into relationships but they won’t have sex ๏ How do people understand their own sexual orientation? Comes naturally through puberty and for some people it could happen later on in life (30-40) ๏ What causes sexual orientation? Coming out - Struggling: guilt, shame, suicidal, confusion, how to come out and support?, fearful - Acceptance: in high school and afraid that their family wouldn’t accept them, self discovery - After: Improvement* like social support, self acceptance Etiology of Sexual Orientation • Research on biological factors: Genes - Concordance: % of cases in which an attribute is present for both individuals in a pair of siblings - Concordance rates of gay and lesbians ○ Support for genetic contribution Gay Men Lesbians Identical twins 52 48 Non-identical twins 22 16 Adoptive brother/sister 11 6 Notes: If one brother was gay, then there was 50% that their sister was gay. For adoptive there was a fairly low chance that if one sibling was gay the other would be too. •Research on biological factors: Prenatal Events - Do abnormally low/high levels of testosterone/estrogen result in LGB offspring? ○ pregnant rats exposed to stress → low testosterone in fetus → male rats assuming female mate posture ★ These effects not consistently found in human ○ prenatal exposure to abnormally high levels of estrogen → higher likelihood of lesbian offspring - No difference in testosterone levels between gay and heterosexual males • Research on biological factors: Birth Order - Late birth order effect for males: older brothers + right handed → higher likelihood of identifying as gay ○ Asexual people more likely to be left-handed; asexual men more likely to have older brothers ○ No birth order effects for women ○ One theory: mothers develop antibodies to the H-Y antigen on Y-chromosome • Research on social factors: Learning - Behaviorists: rewards and punishments channel people toward heterosexuality/homosexuality like harsh experiences with heterosexuals when growing up and that you had more pleasant experiences with the same sex, you’re more likely to grow up as a homosexual but it’s not really proven - Do early experiences influence sexual orientation? ○ sexual assault not higher among lesbian vs. heterosexual women ○ Children who grow up with a gay or lesbian parent not more likely to become gay ๏ Fact vs. Fiction: How do the life experiences of LGB individuals differ from heterosexual individuals? Attitudes Toward LGB Individuals - Over 66% of Canadians, 28% ofAmericans approve of homosexuality - Approval ≠ acceptance - may approve of same sex rights and their lifestyle but they don’t necessarily accept it. They’re okay with it if it’s not happening to them personally, but if it is with somebody close to them they’re not accepting Table 14.2Attitudes of Adult Canadians Toward Homosexuality In Favor Not in Favor Do you think homosexuals should have the same righ74%as 30% heterosexuals? Same-sex couples should continue to be allowed to 61gally 34 marry. Are you in favor or not with same-sex couples adop46ng 47 children? Notes: • LGB people more likely to be victims of violence - Survey of LGB youth 15-19 years old ○ 80% reported verbal harassment, 115 been physically assaulted, 9% sexual assaulted ○ Some contemplated/attempted suicide • Attitudes toward bisexual people: - Seen by heterosexuals as conflicted/immature - Seen as hiding/denying true gay identity from “Homosexuals were seduced by homosexual-learning adults, or sexually abused as children” • Sorensen (1973): - Of those adolescents with same-sex experiences: ○ 24% had their first experience with a younger person, ○ 39% with someone their own age, ○ 29% with an older teenager, ○ 8% with an adult • Lesbian women not more likely to have been sexually assaulted than heterosexual women • Vast majority of child abusers are heterosexuals “Homosexuals are sick” - like a value statement • Circular logic → can never be disproven “Individuals who self-identify as LGB are more likely to show signs of psychological maladjustment” • Rosen (1974): compared gay men, lesbian women in therapy with randomly chose heterosexuals - Findings: heterosexuals (unsurprisingly) had better adjustment • Comparison of non-patient samples of hetero vs. LGB individuals - Findings: no differences in adjustment • Other studies: - LGB individuals at higher risk for depression and suicide ○ Better health outcomes when supported by family, friends, community “Homosexual relationships are abnormal/unhealthy” • Statistics Canada (2006): - ~7500 same-sex married couples; and ~38,800 same-sex common-law couples and that there seems to be more similarities than differences • Source of conflict in same-sex relationships: money, housework, sex • Women currently in same-sex relationship after marriage to a man: many issues they faced in both relationships similar “Homosexuality can be reversed with therapy” • Bottom line: Doesn’t work. - Some LGBs seeks therapy to recover from conversion therapy “People naturally come to be attracted to the opposite sex, no one is born homosexual” • Chapter 10 -- Rosario et al. (1996): sampled LGB with aged 14-21 - Their first experience of sexual attraction at age 10 or 11 - First experience of sexual fantasies occurred several months to a year later and same with same sex attraction -First sexual activitwith another person occurred on average at 12 or 13 • Parallel with what we see from heterosexual adolescents “Homosexuals could be romantically involved with heterosexuals if they wanted” • Concealing one’s identity associated with negative outcomes: - Stressful and exhausting - Chapter 12: self-disclosure in relationships → emotional intimacy, relationship satisfaction and longevity - Same-sex couples more “out” to the world about their sexual orientation reported greater relationship satisfaction “Homosexuals could be romantically involved with heterosexuals if they wanted” • Concealing one’s identity associated with negative outcomes: - Longitudinal study: concealing one’s sexual orientation linked with higher incidence of cancer and infectious diseases Chapter 15 - Variations in Sexual Behavior • What is “normal” sexual behavior? - BDSM - as long as it adheres to the expectations of both couples - Pie in the face to be able to get an orgasm - Foot fetish it’s situational • What is “abnormal” sexual behavior? - Pie in the face to be able to get an orgasm because it’s more rare in society but the couples are okay with it - Guy sexually aroused when a girl just flashes him while walking down the street Preamble: Frequently Reported Sexual Fantasies • What do people fantasize about? Findings from Renaud & Byers (1999) and Leitenberg and Henning (1995): - sexual fantasy (sf) fairly common during masturbation and sexual intercourse or any time during the day - sf positively related to orgasm frequency, arousability to variety of sources - sf mostly positively, but inconsistently related to sexual satisfaction - Most common fantasies: reliving an exciting sexual experience, imagining having sex with one’s current partner, imagining having sex with a partner ○ other fantasies: oral sex, sex in a romantic/novel location, dominance/submission themes, sexual coercion and it’s not the same as rape fantasies. During fantasies you still have control over coercion and other things and that during rape you don’t have any control, which is why it’s very different. - Most fantasies involve consenting partners Describing “Abnormal”-influenced by culture, past histories and different values • Concerns/Challenges: - Control over population? ○ Judeo-Christian/Victorian traditions ○ E.g., birth control illegal until 1960s - Influence of culture
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