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Unit 6 - Conception.docx

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Psychology 2075
Leslie Janes

Conception, Pregnancy & Childbirth Outline • Pregnancy Increasing likelihood Infertility, alternatives • Fetal development Teratogens • Childbirth • postpartum Should You Have a Child? • Reasons to have a child – Personal experience – Personal pleasure – Personal extension – Loving relationship – Personal responsibility – Companionship for the later years – Religious beliefs • Reasons not to have a child – Strain on the earth’s resources – Reduces couples’ time – Freedom – Dual careers – Financial drain – Difficulty – Irrevocable decision – danger Becoming Pregnant • Enhancing the possibility intercourse just prior to or at ovulation Ovum can be fertilized up to 24 hours after ovulation Sperm can survive 3-5 days predicting ovulation mucus • Just before and during ovulation, mucus is very slippery and wet Calendar • Typically track minimum 6 month trend BBT methods • Temps dips slightly before ovulation, rises dramatically after ovulation-predictor urine tests other methods Keeping sperm in the body as long as possible (man on top, lie on pillow for 1 hr) Don’t urinate after sex • Infertility diagnosis More than 6 months trying = problem > 1 year = infertility • Approximately 15% of couples • 50% of these will end up getting pregnant without help 1 in 6 couples seek help causes complex, hard to determine unidentifiable in 15% male infertility low sperm count • anything that increases testicular temp is bad Irregularly shaped sperm • Can’t propel themselves properly low sperm motility • infections can lead to scarring in the vas deferens which slows or stops sperm Chronic or infectious diseases female infertility failure to ovulate regularly endometriosis • in fallopian tubes can stop egg from reacting uterus obstructions in reproductive tract • due to PID, gonorrhea, clhamydia declining hormone levels with aging Alternatives for conception artificial insemination • sperm collected then injected into vagina • can be artificially inseminated by a donor sperm if partner has low sperm count In vitro fertilization (IVF) • Eggs are fertilized outside of the body, ova then implanted • Can result in multiple births Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) • Sperm and eggs inserted into fallopian tubes Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) • Insert fertilized eggs into fallopian tube Embryonic transfer • Surrogate is artificially inseminated with partners sperm, once she becomes pregnant the embryo is transferred to the mother’s uterus • Can be done in reverse (embryo from mother transferred to surrogate) if other is likely to miscarry • Surrogate motherhood • Adoption Conception • 200 to 400 million sperm • Ovum – Zona pellucida • Gelatinous coating around the sperm • Has to be broken down by multiple sperm • Zygote – Fertilized egg • Fertilization usually takes place in the outer 1/3 of the fallopian tube Becoming Pregnant (cont.) • Pregnancy detection first signs: spotting, or no period; fatigue; tender breasts; nausea/vomiting • Many but not all women blood or urine tests for (HCG) at 6 weeks, subtle softening of uterus Miscarriage and spontaneous abortion •
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