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Psychology 2075
Leslie Janes

Tuesday, October 29, 2013 Chapter 6: Contraception Historical Perspective - Evidence of contraception since beginning of recorded history • 1350 BC: condom like contraptions, lemon&sponge, inserts into the vagina - Birth control in Canada • 1882: became illegal to sell birth control • 1965: pill available (therapeutic use only) - could only be used if a woman’s life/health was at risk - prescription needed, still not easily accessed • 1969: contraception legalized - Pierre Trudeau did a lot to change sexuality laws Modern Perspective - Contemporary Issues • planning for wanted children - married couples planning when they have children - waiting 2-3years between pregnancies • population growth as a concern - we have finite resources and countries with lesser education and economical stability have lesser access to contraception resulting in booming growth of their population • wide diversity of views among cultures and religious leaders - in the US, birth control wasn’t covered by health plans but Viagra was 1 Tuesday, October 29, 2013 • many views fringe on educating adolescents about how not to get pregnant while having sex b/c they believe it will encourage them to have sex - false view: adolescents are still having sex but are not protecting resulting in unwanted pregnancies Choosing A Birth Control Method - Considerations when choosing a BC Method • effectiveness - effectiveness important to people who a trying their hardest not to get pregnant, University Students - married couples planning on having kids may not care too much about effectiveness - theoretical vs. typical failure rate • theoretically, taking ‘the pill’ religiously should result in very little room for error • typically, people forget to take pills, don’t wait appropriate time which can result in pregnancy • ease of use and cost - purchasing pills every month, IUDs one time purchase - cervical cap: whether a woman is comfortable with inserting a cap into her vagina • side effects - vary from person to person - some has very few side effects (condoms) - birth control pill • more serious for those who’ve had blood clots, smoke or over 35 years - specific birth control for these individuals 2 Tuesday, October 29, 2013 • protection from STD’s - condoms quite good for protection - HPV can be on the scrotum • moral acceptability - strict religious, culture beliefs • shared responsibility - typically responsibility falls on the woman • Hormone-Based Contraceptives • Combination Pill • estrogen&progesterone tricks the body into believe it is pregnant and thickens the uterus wall • this is because of heighten libel of hormones • estrogen stops ovulation • progesterone makes the uterus inhospitable and disallows sperm from getting in • you’re suppose to take it the same time everyday • if you do forget for multiple days you may need to use another form on contraception for there set of the month • 3% failure rate in women who take the pill regularly • Pros: • shorter menstrual cycle and helps prevent acne • common concern that regularly taking the pill inhibit pregnancy ability • NO: it may take your body a couple of cycles to get over the heighten hormone level 3 Tuesday, October 29, 2013 • Triphasic Pill • progesterone levels lower • when women find they have experienced significant weight gain since on the pill • Side Effects • can decrease sex drivel, weight gain: mainly due to progesterone • pill problematic if you are a smoker, over 35 or have a history of blood clotting • Skin Patch/Vaginal Ring • skin patch used for 3 weeks, 1 patch a week • vaginal ring used for 3 weeks, and removed for week 4 • Mini-Pill (Progestin-only) • for women who have problems with the combination pill (over 35, smoker) • progestin works in the same way as it does in the combination pill • women still do ovulate usually because there is no estrogen to stop ovulation • sometimes may not have any period, just occasional spotting • weight gain very common and likely though • Depo-Provera • injection every 3 months • progestin only based • women will miss their period while on it • osteoporosis more likely as a result of taking Depo-Provera • prescribed less due to this new risk factor 4 Tuesday, October 29, 2013 • Emergency Contraception (Plan B) • best used 12-24hours after intercourse • high levels of hormones that will prevent fertility • used if a woman had unwanted unprotected sex (rape/sexual assault) • 95% effective • does not cause an abortion; prevents fertilization • used to need a prescription to attain Plan B • laws changed: doctor prescription not needed, can be purchased over the counter with pharmacists consolation (but can be refused) • repeat use not recommended • but no ill effects found • Intrauterine Devices (IUDs) • small object that is inserted into the uterus and left in place to prevent conception
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