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Lecture 2

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Western University
Psychology 2075
Jeremy Roth

September 19, 2012 Lecture 2—Introduction and History Justification for the Scientific Study of Sex - Sex Research is Core Psychological Science o Clinical psychology o Biological psychology o Developmental psychology  Changes in behaviour and in capacity and inclination across the life span o Personality psychology  Measure personality traits and characteristics  Don’t have much interest in peoples sexual personality o Social psychology o Evolutionary psychology  Can’t get enough sex because evolution requires sexual mating and natural selection  Sex is starting line of the whole evolutionary story - Sex Research is Core Social Science: o Sociology  Impact of social structure and family structure including occasionally sexual endpoints o Anthropology  Culture, patterns of norms  Butterfly collectors of the sexually exotic o Economics o History - Sex Research is Core Medical Science o Anatomy  Functional anatomy of sexuality o Physiology o Biochemistry  Core scientific analytic tool of sexual science such as, how does the endocrine system work and how does nitric oxide (Viagra) have an impact on the human genitals o Endocrinology o Virology - People Want to Know About Sex: The Social Comparison Motive o All human beings have a strong drive to compare their achievements to other people o We can’t compare our sexuality to the person next to us - People need to know about sex o What is an orgasm and how do I obtain one? o How can we stop the AIDS epidemic? o Why is my daughter gay? o Does pornography cause rape? Sex leads to babies - Canadian Contraception Study 2004 (N=1599) - 28% of couples had unplanned pregnancies - Percent Sexually Active Couples Do Not Always Use Birth Control, Past 6 Months: Sex leads to abortions - Outcomes of unplanned pregnancies--married and unmarried women: o Abortion: 28%--50% o Miscarriage: 13%--14% o Kept Baby: 63%--40% o Adoption: 4%--2% - 38%-45% of Canadian and US abortions are repeats - Women who had a second or third abortion were better users of contraceptives than women who were presenting their first abortion - Women who had to repeat abortion didn’t want to have a baby for two reasons o Intimate partner violence o Victim of sexual violence Sex leads to infections: - Bacterial (Chalmydia, Gonorrhea) o Curable - Viral (HSV, HPV, HIV) o HSV = herpes (cold sore) o HPV = human Papillomavirus: can cause warts or cancer or just go away o HIV = human immunodeficiency virus o Uncurable Montreal university women: - Probability of HPV Infection During 36 Month Follow-Up - A: 60% of women developed HPV from first contact - B: oncogenic: 50% of women acquired one and 50% developed warts - C: Sexuality and Gender - Are men and women as different as we think they are? Sexual Orientation - Orientation or preference? - Behavior or arousal or fantasy? - Intermittent or lifelong? - Sex differences? - Etiology? - Binary or trinary or more? - And how many of us (them) are there? Sexuality and Disability Sexuality and Ageing Sexual Function Concerns - Physiological impairments - Erectile disfunction - Vaginal lubrication: blood flowing into the pelvis more rapidly than…? Sexual Assault Sexuality and Relationships Sexuality and Controversy A Brief History of the Scientific Study of Sex - Science and Pseudospeciation - Pseudo = fake, speciation = dividing into species - When human beings want to do something very taboo to other humans, they separate out a pseudo species to do terrible things to them Animal sex - We have been hesitant to study human sexual behaviour - Have been studying primate behaviour for a while - “In stumptail monkeys, either males or females may solicit for copulation. During this study males solicited 13 times and females 13 times…When the male solicits copulation he looks directly at the female or follows her about. When the female solicits she approaches the male and presents her rear…” Chevalier-Skolnikoff, 1975 Native Sex - Scientific study of native or aboriginal sex - Seemed to comprise a pseudo other species that we could study - Their skin was darker Strange Sexual Practices of All Races in All Ages Ivan Bloch, MD, 1904 - Never had pubic hair until 1980s, airbrushed out - First pubic hair shown was on aboriginal women - Ivan Block (dermatologist) wrote a book on the sexual practices of people with dark skin Crazy Sex - We can study sexual habits of animals, native people, and crazy people - Masturbated publicly - Swiss physician wrote that the loss of one ounce of semen was equivalent to the loss of 48 ounces of blood Psychopathia Sexualis - Krafft
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