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Lecture 4

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Psychology 2075
Jeremy Roth

October 3, 2012 Lecture 4—Understanding Human Sexuality: Theory, Ethics and Methodology Theories of Sexual Behaviour - Understanding, Prediction, Control - Theory: an empirically testable explanation for sexual (or any other) phenomena o - Theory in sexual science: o “Imports”—psychological theory from outside of sexual science imported an applied in the context of human sexuality o “Indigenous” –psychological theory developed specifically as an explanation for human sexual behaviour, incorporating constructs and outcomes specifically appropriate to sexual behaviour Psychology of Sexual Behaviour: Theoretical Approaches - “Imports”—psychological theory from outside of sexual science imported and tested in the context of human sexuality - Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of Development - Sexual and Aggressive Instincts o Id: pleasure principle  Only knows how to go directly to these largely socially unacceptable aims  Only has access to fantasy fulfillment  Sexual and aggressive urges o Ego: reality principle  Differentiates from the id, prevents id from being satisfied until it is realistic to  Wait until its available o Superego: ideal principle  Wait until its morally available o Intrapsychic unconscious conflict o Displaced satisfaction of repressed needs  Disguised everyday gratification of sexual and aggressive urges - Psychosexual development o Proceeds from the erogenous zones o Identification means when you’re really motivated to achieve some aim but its not socially acceptable you identify and acquire the characteristics of someone who is gratified o Oral, anal, phallic stages o Oedipus conflict  Boy loves mother, castration anxiety  Identifies with father, seeks what father gets: adult heterosexual women o Electra conflict  Girl loves mother, experiences penis envy  Identifies with mother, seeks what mother gets: adult heterosexual men o Mature sexuality  Heterosexual  Vaginal (vs. clitoral)  ED, clitoral orgasm, homosexuality, fantasy are pathologized - “Indigenous—psychological theory developed specifically as explanation for human sexual behaviour, incorporating constructs and outcomes appropriate to this behavioural context o Sociobiological Theory of Sexual Behaviour  Parental Investment Theory o Social Psychological Theory of Sexual Behaviour  The Sexual Behaviour Sequence Sociobiology: Conceptualizing Male and Female Sexuality Sociobiological—Evolutionary Psychological Theory of Human Sexual Behaviour - Characteristics that ensure genetic representation in future generations will be naturally selected or favoured - Characteristics that ensure males’ and females’ genetic representation in future generations often differ and conflict Sociobiological Approach to Sexual Behaviour: Parental Investment Theory Males Females Genetic Assurance Low High Commitment to Offspring Low High Reproductive Potential High Low Optimal Reproductive Promiscuit Selectivit Strategy y y - Attractive characteristics in mates o Males: ability and inclination to provision offspring  Resources  Physical fitness  Dominance o Females: fertility and faithfulness Sociobiology—Evolutionary Psychology - Mating strategies o Men:  Short term mating serves promiscuity, multiple offspring  Long term mating serves nurturance of offspring until reproductive maturity o Women:  Long term mating serves nurturance of offspring until reproductive maturity  Short term mating: resource accrual, genetic diversity, provoking jealousy o Gives rise to:  Mate Poaching  Mate guarding - Fertility related cues: o Permanent breast enlargement  Preadolescent—no  Pregnant—no  Lactating—no  Post-menopause—no o Concealed ovulation  Forces pair bonding - Critique o There likely are naturally selected sex differences in sexual behaviour o Natural selection is an enormously costly and time consuming way of adapting o Human beings adapt very rapidly and at low cost to culture and circumstance via cognition, emotion, and learning Integrating Sociobiological and Social Psychological Approaches to Sexual Behaviour: Macro to Micro Level Processes and Gene—Culture Co-Evolution - Genetically selected response tendencies probably contribute to the shaping of cultural institutions - Genetic nudges contribute to the create of cultural regularity - Culture serves as a mediate reminder and shaper of behaviour - Genes contribute to culture, culture contributes to behaviour Sexual Behaviour Sequence: Arousal, Affective, and Cognitive Determinants of Human Sexual Behaviour - “Indigenous” Theory - Incorporates aspects of classical conditioning, operant conditioning, behaviour modification Sexual Behaviour Sequence: Developmental Progression - Infancy: conditioning affect to sexual cues - Childhood: affectively biased acquisition of information - Adolescence: fantasy as staging area; affect, information, fantasy guide interpersonal sexual behaviour - Adulthood and Ageing: affect, information, fantasy shaped by partner, challenges of adulthood (e.g. parenting), ageing (e.g. sexual decline) Sexual Behaviour Sequence: Interpersonal and Longitudinal Aspects - Successful, sexually attractive relationships: o Move to convergence in affect, information, fantasy over time - Unsuccessful, sexually unattractive relationships: o Move to divergence in affect, information, fantasy over time Other Theoretical Approaches - Social Learning Theory o Observations o Expectations for reinforcement o Self-efficacy - Social Exchange Theory o Equity vs. inequity o Comparison level - Sexual script theory o Script for campus sexual relationships? o Script for contraception and safer sex? Research Tests of Theory: Ethical Requirements for Research on Human Sexual Behaviour - Sex research methodology: procedures for collection of data in sexual science - Is it ethical? - Is it accurate? Procedures for ensuring ethical conduct of research with human participants - Peer review o Risks of research  Risks of research  Risks of not doing research o Benefits of research  To participant  To science and society - Survived peer review o Effects of testosterone replacement therapy on sexual interest, function, and behaviour in HIV+ Men - Risk: Benefit ratio o Classic view  Risk: Benefit ratio must be positive or risk very minimal as benefit cannot be promised to participant o Realistic view  We do research because we are unsure of outcome and therefore we cannot promise any benefit  Risk must consequently be negligible  Studying HIV Risk Behaviour among HIV-Infected Patients in London Ontario Procedures for ensuring ethical coduct of research with human participants - Informed consent - The participant as his or her own ethics committee - Re: procedures of study - Hypothesis of study - Funding of study Sexual Orientation and Mental Health Procedures for Ensuring Ethical Conduct of Research with Human Participants - Voluntary participation o Captive versus noncaptive population o Eliminate social and other pressures  Privacy of consent procedure  Disconnect consent procedure from resource provision (e.g. health care)  Compensation Real World Example of |Voluntary” Participation: South African Vaginal Microbicide Study - Women enrolled in South African vaginal microbicide study o Vaginal microbicide of unknown effectiveness o Counseled emphatically to continue condom use o HIV tests every month, DSMB review every 22 HIV+ seroconversions o Participants get 150 Rand, HIV tests, access to ARVs, monthly health checkups and care o Is this voluntary participation? Procedures for Ensuring Ethical Conduct of Research with Human Participants - Anonymity and confidentiality o Assurances and limits  NHSLS—destroy identifiers o Subpoenas  “Willful blindness” o Duty to warn  Tarasoff - Debriefing o Eliminate effects o Ameliorate effects o Explain and educate o Refer and offer assistance Ethical Requirements for Research on Human Sexual Behaviour: From the Perspective of the Participant - 98% of participants glad to satisfy introductory psychology requirement with this particular study - 67% of participants would have taken part without credit - 86% of participants thought it was a learning experience - 97% of participants saw through deception Sex Research Methodology: Pro
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