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Psychology 2810
Doug Hazlewood

Ethics in research 9/27/2012 9:32:00 AM What is ethics? - a branch of philosophy concerned with moral issues of “right” and “wrong” - to behave ethically is to do what is morally right why do scientists need an ethical code of conduct? - the Tuskegee syphilis study: a treatment for syphilis was deliberately withheld from patients - the willowbrook hepatitis study: children with cognitive disabilities deliberately infected with hepatitis - medical experiments in german concentration camps during WW2  immersed prisoners in ice cold water  shot prisoners with poison bullets  Nuremberg trials charged 20 scientists with willing participation in crimes against humanity Part 1: Ethical codes of conduct A) The Nuremberg code st o 1 principle “the voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential” o 6 principles focus on protecting subjects from physical and mental suffering o 3 principles emphasize that research must have a useful purpose and be conducted by trained professionals B) ethical codes in psychology 1. APA (1953) : a code for clinical psychology APA (1973) : a code for research psychology APA (2010) : current version (see W&M) 2. CPA (1978 … 2000) : code of ethics for psychologists 3. tri-council policy statement on ethical conduct for research involving humans (TCPS, 2010)  the three councils: CIHR, SSHRC, NSERC  TCPS governs all research at western (including honors theses) Part 2: Eight principles of the TCPS  Principle 1: respect for human dignity o A moral imperative o The cardinal principle on which all other principles are based 1. don’t treat research participants as “objects” to be studied; treat them with dignity and respect 2. be concerned with their safety and welfare  Principle 2: respect for free and informed consent 1. participants have a right to be informed about anything that might influence their willingness to participate (purpose, procedures, and possible risks) 2. must consent to participate  Can withdraw concent at any time without penalty  Consent should be obtained in writing (see labs) 3. informed consent must be freely given  Voluntary (no coercion, undue influence)  Avoid subtle forms of pressure (eg grades, large monetary incentives; highly attractive benefits)  Principle 3: respect for vulnerable persons (eg children) o Obtain informed consent from legal guardians o Obtain assent from participants (do they want to participate?) Interlude: deception  Ethical issue: involves concealing information o How can we obtain “informed” consent A) two form
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