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Psychology 1000 Lecture Notes - Anna Freud, Sensory System, Neural Development

Course Code
PSYCH 1000

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Cognitive Development 1/30/2013 6:53:00 PM
Issues in development
Neural development
Visual development
Next time: Piaget
Scan: 451-458
Video: newborn baby. Baby can do pretty much anything. All the systems
are working. They are developed. They are prepared for life on the first day
of birth.
Today’s Question
What influences development?
How does the change in the newborn?
How does the visual system change over the first few months of
If an individual was completely unable to experience arousal, but still
reported an experience of emotion, this would argue strongly against which
theory of emotion?
A. James-Lange (arousal right before emotion, if no arousal, then no
experience no emotion. Arousal is essential for emotion.)
B. Schacter’s two factor theory
C. Lazarus’ cognitive appraisal
D. Common sense theory
E. None of these
Development=change in abilities over time (there is time trend in there,
there is a temporal trend)

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What influences Development
It’s always both nature and nurther
It is an interaction
Nature determines the range (genetically coded, tall or short)
Nurture chooses the alternatives (nourishment, and environment. )
Stagelike Development
Discontinuous…stages are separated by rapid growth
o Stage 1, 2 3 etc..
Qualitative different between stages. Could be ability based or
physical. Eg. Butterfly starts with caterpillar and stage 2 is
caterpillar with wings then stage 3 is butterfly.
Continuous Development
Smooth, continual change, no stages

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Quantitative difference. Eg. Infants to adult. They all look the same,
no big difference. Eg. Adult can do better than infants. Growing into
a larger, better example of an species.
Normative vs Individual
Typical sequence of change. Eg. The average 2 years old can do
this, the average 5 years old can do this by looking at the sequence
of change.
Look for consistency. Methodology is cross-sectional (2 years old
compared with 5 years old. Looking for consistency in behaviors)
Consistency not there
Look at individual. Methodology is longitudinal (eg. Not a group of
2 years old compared with another groups of 5 years old. Instead,
only measure the same group of people, when they are 2 years old
and after 3 years measure them again.) it’s the same individual but
it’s time study takes many years. Research is too
long. Whereas cross-sectional is a lot faster.
Brain Development (physical development)
A lot of change
100-200 Billion neurons at birth
neurons not produced after second trimester (6 months)
Increase in weight (350-1400 g) due to glial cells & myelination.
Axons are becoming myelinated. Not because of neurons.
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