Psychology 1000 Lecture Notes - Behaviorism, Connectionism, Operant Conditioning

12 views5 pages
Published on 17 Apr 2013
School
Western University
Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Learning Theories
Overview
Formation of associations
Learning Principles one vs. two factor theories
Classical (or Pavlovian) conditioning
Operant (or Skinnerian) conditioning
Observational learning
Cognition & Learning
What is Learning?
Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior which is independent of
the effects of maturation and temporary factors such as fatigue or sensory
adaptation
Classes of Theories
Theories will differ in terms of the language used to describe them
Some will be very connectionist while others will be more cognatavistic
However, ALL will tend towards abstraction in order to gain generality
There are TWO major classes of theories
1. Single Factor
2. Two Factor
Single Factor Theories
Assertion is that one type of learning is predominant
One basic process or principle underlies all forms of learning such as:
o Principle of Contiguity
Response in the presence of a particular stimuli leads to
learning through the formation of an association
Strongly linked to Classical or Pavlovian conditioning
However, it is not entirely absent from the Operant paradigm
which may also be interpreted via contiguity
o Principle of Reinforcement
Clark Hull’s Original Operant learning paradigm
Contention is that drive reduction is the motivating factor in
learning
E.g. Hunger eat reduction of drive to eat
However, an unconditioned stimulus may also be interpreted
as setting up a drive reduction situation
Two Factor Theories
The most notable theorists who have utilized the combination of contiguity
and reinforcement in their theories are:
o E.L. Thorndike
o B.F. Skinner
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Law of Effect
States that a behavior followed by a satisfying consequence will become
more likely to occur while a behavior followed by an unsatisfying outcome
will become less likely to occur
o Basis of Thorndike’s Instrumental Learning – also became foundation
of Behaviorism
Theoretical Language
Connectionist vs. Gestalt vs. Cognativistic
Connectionist
In connectionist terms the hypotethical unit “learned” is either an
Association” or a “Habit” or a “Stimulus-Response Bond
The view of association varies across theories. Some see it as gradual while
others see it as a “single” trial ALL or NONE event
Another term common to learning theories is extinction
Some theories it is viewed as the gradual weakening of an association
Other theories view an association as a permanent formation
In these latter theories extinction cannot occur
However, people still tend to refer to the cessation of a behavior in terms of
behavior having become extinguished
What is different is the process involved
Rather than a process if gradual weakening some theories postulate that
what appears to be extinction is actually a consequence of “counter-
conditioning
Counter-Conditioning is a process through which an existing association is
replaces by a newly formed association which produces a behavior which is
antagonist or incompatible with the behavior produced by the original
association
Gestalt Theories
Edward Chase Tolman is the father of this approach to learning
o Contrary to the association as the basic unit of learning Tolman
postulated the theory of “Purposive Behavior”
o This is a Molar concept where behavior (muscle movement) is
organized around a specific goal
o Consequently the behavior is controlled by Cognitive processes
o The single most important contribution of this approach is LATENT
learning
o Latent Learning refers to the possibility that learning may occur
unobserved
o Under certain changes in conditions the unobserved learning may
manifest itself as a sudden increased efficiency in performance
o This view challenges or qualifies ALL views which rely on Drive
Reduction as the basis of learning.
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Learning principles one vs. two factor theories. Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior which is independent of. What is learning? the effects of maturation and temporary factors such as fatigue or sensory adaptation. Theories will differ in terms of the language used to describe them. Some will be very connectionist while others will be more cognatavistic. However, all will tend towards abstraction in order to gain generality: single factor, two factor. Assertion is that one type of learning is predominant. One basic process or principle underlies all forms of learning such as: principle of contiguity. Response in the presence of a particular stimuli leads to learning through the formation of an association. Strongly linked to classical or pavlovian conditioning. However, it is not entirely absent from the operant paradigm which may also be interpreted via contiguity: principle of reinforcement. Contention is that drive reduction is the motivating factor in learning. Hunger eat reduction of drive to eat.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.