Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (650,000)
Western (60,000)
PSYCH (10,000)
PSYCH 1000 (4,000)

Chapter 14 – Treatment of Psychological Disorders A comprehensive summary of key terms and aspects of the required learnings / teachings from Ch. 14.

Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

This preview shows page 1. to view the full 5 pages of the document.
Chapter 14 Treatment of Psychological Disorders
Mental health professionals fall into several categories:
o Counseling and clinical psychologists typically hold a Ph.D. or Psy.D.
o Psychiatrists medical doctors who specialize in psychotherapy and biomedical
o Therapist, counselor, psychotherapist, hypnotist are NOT protected terms
APA membership: 29% eclectic (combined), 21% psychodynamic, 16% behavioural, 13%
cognitive, 12% humanistic, 9% other
Psychodynamic Therapies
o Goal is to help clients achieve insight (conscious awareness of psychodynamics that
underlie their problems)
o Free association procedure of verbalizing all thoughts that enter consciousness without
Freud sat out of sight from patient so thought processes would be determined by
internal factors
o Dream interpretation through free association of dream elements
o Resistance defensive maneuvers that hinder the process of therapy
o Transference psychoanalytic phenomenon in which a client responds irrationally to the
analyst as if he were an important person from the client’s past who plays an important
role in the client’s dynamics
Positive transference occurs when a client transfers intense affection,
dependency, or love to the analyst
Negative transference occurs when a client transfers expressions of anger,
hatred, or disappointment to the analyst
o Interpretation any statement by the therapist intended to provide the client with insight
into their behaviour or dynamics
Brief Psychodynamic Therapies
o Clients seen a few times a week, rather than daily
o Focus on current life situations, rather than on past childhood experiences
o Interpersonal therapy form of brief therapy that focuses on the client’s interpersonal
problems and seeks to develop new interpersonal skills
Humanistic Psychotherapies
Client-Centred Therapy
o Most important part of therapy is relationship that develops between client and therapist
o Three important and interrelated therapist attributes:
Unconditional positive regard therapists show clients that they genuinely care
about them and accept them, without judgment or evaluation
Empathy willingness and ability to view the world through the client’s eyes
Therapist communicates understanding by reflecting back to client
what they are communicating
Therapist cannot fake it, because client will realize this
Genuineness therapist must honestly express his or her feelings, whether
positive or negative
o Non-directive approach (only person who can cure the client is client themselves)
Gestalt Therapy
o Term “gestalt” refers to perceptual principles through which people actively organize
stimulus elements into meaningful “whole” patterns
Goals of therapy is to bring background figures into immediate awareness so
that client can be “whole” again
o Empty-chair technique involves client carrying on a conversation with his mother, where
he alternately plays his mother and himself
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Cognitive Therapies
Ellis’s Rational-Emotive Therapy
o Therapy is embodied in ABCD model:
Activating event triggers the emotion
Belief system underlies way in which a person appraises the activating event
Consequences emotional and behavioural consequences of the appraisal
Disputing challenging an erroneous belief system
o People are accustomed to viewing emotions (consequences) as being caused directly by
activating events
Emotions are actually caused by belief system, which must be countered and
Beck’s Cognitive Therapy
o Goal is to point out errors of thinking and logic that underlie emotional disturbances and
to reprogram client’s automatic negative thought patterns
o Self-instructional training cognitive coping approach of giving adaptive self-
instructions to oneself at crucial phases of the coping process
Behaviour Therapies
Classical Conditioning Treatments
o Most direct way to reduce a phobia is through process of classical extinction of anxiety
Requires exposure to feared CS in absence of UCS while using response
prevention (prevention of escape or avoidance responses during exposure so that
extinction can occur)
Client may be exposed to real-life stimuli (flooding) or may be asked to imagine
scenes involving the stimuli (implosion)
o Systematic desensitization attempt to eliminate anxiety using counterconditioning, in
which a new response that is incompatible with anxiety is conditioned to the anxiety-
arousing CS
Client must construct a stimulus hierarchy (a series of anxiety-arousing stimuli
that are ranked in terms of amount of anxiety they evoke)
Client must relax, and then focus on first level of hierarchy, then next, until
Client can’t experience anxiety if relaxed strongly enough
Relaxation replaces anxiety as the CR
In vivo desensitization exposure to a hierarchy of real life situations
o Aversion therapy therapist pairs a stimulus that is attractive to a person (and that
stimulates deviant or self-defeating behaviour the CS) with a noxious UCS in an
attempt to condition an aversion to the CS
Example: to treat alcoholics, injecting the client with a drug that causes nausea
upon consumption of alcohol
Operant Conditioning Treatments
o Behaviour modification treatment techniques that involve the application of operant
conditioning procedures in an attempt to increase or decrease a specific behaviour
o Token economy system for strengthening desired behaviours through the systematic
application of positive reinforcement
Tokens rewarded upon observing desired behaviours, and are then traded in for
various privileges
o Therapists only use punishment after asking two important questions:
Are there alternative, less painful approaches that might be effective?
Is the behaviour to be eliminated sufficiently injurious to the individual or
society to justify the severity of the punishment?
Modelling and Social Skills Training
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version