Psychology 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Monoamine Oxidase, Countertransference, Reuptake

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Chapter 17: Treatment of Psychological Disorders
Psychoanalysis Freud’s Treatet
- Goal is to help client achieve insight: making unconscious thoughts, emotions, motives, and conflicts
conscious which allows them to adjust their behavior.
1. Free Association
- lues to the uosious’ otet ae foud i ostat stea of thoughts, eoies, iages ad
feelings we experience
- client reclines on a couch and verbally report (w/out censorship) any thoughts, feelings, images that
entered awareness
2. Dream Interpretation
- deas epess ipulses, fatasies, ad ishes that the liet’s defees keep i uosious, aalsts
help clients search for the unconscious material contained in the dreams
- one way is to ask the client to free associate to each element of dream so they can arrive at an
understanding of what the symbols in the dream really represent
- Roal oad to the uosious – forbidden desires hidden in latent meaning (vs. manifest = obvious
meaning)
- Freudian slip (parapraxes) - reveal unconscious content
Problems during Therapy
Resistance
- clients have a strong investment in maintaining defense mechanisms that ego has resorted to that deal
with certain unconscious conflicts
- these avoidance patterns emerge in the course of therapy as resistance
- resistance includes difficulty in free-assoiatio, oig late o fogettig aout a theap
appointment, or avoid talking about certain topics
- resistance = sign that anxiety-arousing material is being approached
- therapists should explore reasons for resistance to promote insight (and to prevent client from
dropping out of therapy prematurely)
Transference
- unconscious redirection of cliet’s feeligs ad eotios fo oe soue to the aalst
- client responds irrationally to the analyst as if the ee a ipotat figue of the liet’s past
- important part of psychoanalysis because it brings out repressed feelings and maladaptive behavior
patterns that the therapist can point out to the client
- 2 basic forms
1. Positive Transference client transfers feelings of intense affection, dependency, or love
onto the analyst
2. Negative Transference client transfers feelings of anger, hatred, or disappointment
onto the analyst
- Countertransference - Theapist’s eatio to the patiet E. If the theapist is fustated  the
patient he/she assumes others are also frustrated by the patient)
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*Interpretation: Interpretations of free association, dream content, resistance, and transference
reactions are chief means for promoting insight. A general rule in psycho-analytic treatment is to
itepet hat is alead ea the sufae ad just eod liet’s uet aaeess offeig deep
itepetatios is a poo tehiue / the ae so fa eoed fo liet’s uet aaeess that
the ae’t ifoatie o helpful.
Brief Psychodynamic Therapies
- Feud’s lassial pshoaalsis is expensive, time-osuig, ipatial, ad ueessa
- It has been shown that by the tenth session of psychanalysis therapy sessions, most of the
ipoeets hae alead ee ade…
- “o a iefe esio as deeloped
- clients face therapist directly, but therapists still use interpretation and insight
- clients meet with therapists less often
- meetings focus on life problems rather than rebuilding personality
- Ex. Interpersonal Therapy
- 15-20 sessions, focus on and find solutions to current interpersonal problems (marital
conflict, loss, social skills), effective therapy for depression.
- Ex. Object Relations Therapy
- Goal: replace bad relational expectations w/good ones (corrective emotional
experience)
- Therapeutic relationships is the primary vehicle of change.
- * Real relationship: process comments, interpretation (of relational processes)
- Strengths: Useful for personality disorders, Focus on relationships
- Limitations: Longer term, More difficult to test effectiveness
Classical Psychanalysis Theories
Strengths
- Most appropriate for anxiety disorders
- Geared to YAVIS clients: young, attractive, verbal, insightful, successful
Limitations
- Costly, time-consuming
- Bases on scientifically unproven theories
- insight may NOT lead to behaviour change
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Humanistic Psychotherapies
- In contrast to psychodynamic psychotherapies, humanistic psychotherapies are based on our own free
will and control rather than unconscious processes, and focus on the present and future instead of the
past. Disordered behavior reflects a blocking of the natural growth process
1. Carl Roger’s Cliet-Centred (Person-Centred) Therapy
- focuses on relationship between client and therapist to foster self-exploration and personal growth
- 3 important attributes in therapist
1. Unconditional Positive Regard trust, acceptance, non-judgement
2. Empathy illig to ie old though liet’s ees, doe though efletig hat the liet
has communicated (rephrasing something client said in a way that captures emotions/meaning)
3. Genuineness therapist expresses honest feelings - consistency between the way the
therapist feels and the way they behave
*Removing Obstacles to Growth also important
2. Perls’ Gestalt Therapy
- Ordinarily, when we perceive something (external stimuli or internal stimuli like ideas, emotions, etc.),
we concentrate only on our whole experience, not the background.
- People w/psychological difficulties have important feelings, wishes, and thoughts in their background
so they are ignoring them. The ignored internal stimuli may be causing anxiety, so they are blocked from
ordinary awareness.
- Gestalt Therapy
- brings these important internal stimuli to awareness
- carried out in groups
- involve imaginative techniques (like role play, dialogue, and expressing pent-up feelings) that
are more active/dramatic than client-centered approaches
- ex. empty-chair technique: imagine carrying out a conversation with someone (mother, father,
etc) but playing both roles and switching chairs for each role.
- Pels as less sietifi tha Roges, he did’t test his tpe of theap, ut othes did ad foud that
the empty-chair technique is successful in helping clients resolve unfinished business, and the clients
who expressed more intense emotions during the exercise had better treatment outcomes.
- More directive & confrontational than other types of humanistic therapy
3. Logotherapy - Victor Frankl
- Concentration camp survivor
- Eah idiidual’s uiue uest fo eaig
- Logotheap Meaig Theap: Help client become aware of their uniqueness, & the unique
meaning of their experience
- Therapeutic Techniques:
- Paradoxical Intention: Humorous exaggeration of symptoms
- Dereflexion: Draw attention away from the symptom
- Socratic dialogue / modification of attitudes: Specific questions to raise into consciousness life
meaning
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PSYCH 1000 Full Course Notes
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Document Summary

Goal is to help client achieve insight: making unconscious thoughts, emotions, motives, and conflicts conscious which allows them to adjust their behavior: free association. (cid:272)lues to the u(cid:374)(cid:272)o(cid:374)s(cid:272)ious" (cid:272)o(cid:374)te(cid:374)t a(cid:396)e fou(cid:374)d i(cid:374) (cid:272)o(cid:374)sta(cid:374)t st(cid:396)ea(cid:373) of thoughts, (cid:373)e(cid:373)o(cid:396)ies, i(cid:373)ages a(cid:374)d feelings we experience. Client reclines on a couch and verbally report (w/out censorship) any thoughts, feelings, images that entered awareness: dream interpretation. D(cid:396)ea(cid:373)s e(cid:454)p(cid:396)ess i(cid:373)pulses, fa(cid:374)tasies, a(cid:374)d (cid:449)ishes that the (cid:272)lie(cid:374)t"s defe(cid:374)(cid:272)es keep i(cid:374) u(cid:374)(cid:272)o(cid:374)s(cid:272)ious, a(cid:374)al(cid:455)sts help clients search for the unconscious material contained in the dreams. One way is to ask the client to free associate to each element of dream so they can arrive at an understanding of what the symbols in the dream really represent. (cid:862)ro(cid:455)al (cid:396)oad to the u(cid:374)(cid:272)o(cid:374)s(cid:272)ious(cid:863) forbidden desires hidden in latent meaning (vs. manifest = obvious meaning) Freudian slip (parapraxes) - reveal unconscious content. Clients have a strong investment in maintaining defense mechanisms that ego has resorted to that deal with certain unconscious conflicts.

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