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Lecture 2

Psychology 1000 Lecture 2:Premium


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Laura Lyn Fazakas Dehoog
Lecture
2

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Psychology 1000 Lecture 2
Professor Fazakas-Dehoog Section: Psychology 1000 002
Chapter 1
What is Psychology?
- A scientific study that covers many topics
o The brain
o The mind
o The relationship between the brain and the mind
o Consciousness
o Cognitive processes (i.e., thinking)
o Emotions
o Sensation and perception (how we take info from the environment and translate it
through our senses)
o Behaviour (human and animal)
o Normal vs. Abnormal behavior
o Behaviour alone vs. in groups
o Development (from conception forward, things like language and personality)
True or False?
1. The greater the reward promised for the activity, the more you will come to enjoy it
FALSE (the more you reward behavior, the less we intrinsically enjoy it)
2. People pull harder at tug of war in a group than when alone FALSE (We tend to slack
off when there is a larger group of individuals with us)
3. The more people around when you are in trouble, the more likely you are to get help
FALSE (Much more likely to get help from someone if they are alone)
4. Attractive people are seen as less intelligent than non-attractive people FALSE (The
halo effect says that when we deem someone attractive, we also attribute them other
positive qualities)
5. Opposites attract FALSE (We are attracted in general to people who we have a lot in
common with (i.e., socio-economic status, religious beliefs). This is called the matching
effect)
Psyche: soul, spirirt, self, or life
-ology: branch of knowledge
Psychology is the scientific study of:
- behaviour
- action
- thoughts
- feelings
- reactions
Goals of psychology are to:
- describe
- understand
- predict
- control (all of the above things)
Levels of Analysis
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- multiple levels of analysis in psychology
o for example when we are considering the causal factors of Depression
- biological
o genetics (heredity)
o neurotransmitters (brains functioning)
o medication (how it impacts depression)
- environmental
o prior losses or rejections (e.g., Freud)
o significant decrease in pleasurable experiences (e.g., learning theory)
o diminished sense of social support
o cultural norms
- psychological
o pessimistic thinking style (e.g., Aaron Beck)
o perfectionistic expectations
o heightened sensitivity to loss
- all of these levels are thought to be important
- as well, all levels are thought to interact
Roots of Psychology
- 2 major influences on psychology
o philosophy
ideas about how knowledge can be acquired
still strongly related to psychology
o natural science
progress in understanding the brain, nervous system, senses etc.
- psychology is a marriage of these two ideas
- The idea of applying the method of science to the study of human behavior
o This is modern psychology
- Psychology as a science is fairly new
o Born in 1879
Philosophical Perspectives
- nativism
o all knowledge is innate
o means we are born with it, it is inherited
o focuses on heredity factors
o relates to the NATURE side of the nature vs. nurture debate
- empiricism
o no knowledge is innate
o knowledge is gained through observation of and interaction with the environment
through our senses
o our life experiences are important
o empiricists say we can only study what we can observe
but this I difficult for psychology when we want to study the mind,
consciousness, thoughts etc.
o relates to the NURTURE side of the nature vs. nurture debate
- nativism and empiricism are opposites
- rationalism
o Knowledge gained through logic and reasoning
Philosophers Influencing Psychology
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