Psychology 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Naturalistic Fallacy, Operant Conditioning, HabituationPremium
Course CodePSYCH 1000
ProfessorLaura Lyn Fazakas Dehoog
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Psychology 1000 – Lecture 14
Professor Fazakas-Dehoog Section: Psychology 1000 002
Evolutionary Analyses of Helping and Hurting: Aggression
• Male primates, including men, are generally more violent than are females of
• Most aggression and violence in male primates relate directly or indirectly to sex.
Genes that promote violence are passed to offspring to the degree that they
Evolutionary Analyses of Helping and Hurting: Cooperation
• Helping (promoting another’s survival or reproduction) takes two forms:
cooperation and altruism.
• Cooperation (helping others while also helping oneself, as in the case of wolves
hunting together) is easy to understand evolutionarily
• Apparent acts of altruism (helping others at a net cost to oneself) make
evolutionary sense if explained by the kin selection or reciprocity theories.
Fallacies to Avoid
• The naturalistic fallacy, indulged in by Social Darwinists, equates what is natural
with what is right
• The deterministic fallacy is the belief that genes control behavior in ways that
cannot be altered by environmental experiences or conscious decisions
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