Chpt 11 Lecture

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15 Apr 2012
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Chapter 12: Lectures
Lecture 1: Cognitive Development
-Issues in Development
-Neural Development
-Visual Development
-What influences development?
-How does the brain change in the newborn?
-How does the visual system change over the first few months of life?
Development: changes in abilities over time
What Influence Devel.
-Nature --> maturation
-Determines the range
-Nurture --> learning
-Choose the alternatives
-two interact and both influence devel.
Stagelike Devel.
-discontinuous … stages separated by rapid growth
-Caterpillar to butterfly
-Qualitative difference
Continuous Devel.
-smoother, continual change
-Quantitative difference
Normative vs individual
-Normative
-Typical sequence of change
-Look for consistency methodology is cross-sectional
-Going to look at people of different ages; see what one can do vs other
-Individual
-Consistency not there
-Look at individual
-Methodology is longitudinal
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Chapter 12: Lectures
-Take one person or group and follow them over time
Brain Devel.
-100-200 b neurons at birth
-Neurons not produced after second trimester
-Increase in weight (350-1400g) due to glial cells and myelination
-# of synapses increase rapidly
-Cortical devel. “mirrors” emergence of abilities
-Frontal lobe develops last
Taste and Smell
-very much like adult
-Suck faster for sweet liquid
-bananas
-Reject salty liquid
-Rotten eggs
-Suggests these sensory systems are probably hardwired
-Will get some learning but mostly nature
Hearing: @ birth
-responds to wide variety of sounds
-Prefer complex sounds
-Sensitive to sounds in range of human voice
-If you read to an infant as a fetus, they recognize that
-The Cat in The Hat; tested for preference for certain materials read
-Very shortly after birth who were read before birth prefered moms sound
of reading the book vs stranger
-first few days
-Turn in direction of sound
-Discriminate sound sequences
Visual System
-iris gray or blue..; pigment comes later
-Basic machinery working at birth
-Pupil not able to fully dilate
-Retina not completely formed
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Chapter 12: Lectures
-First day
-Gaze at nearby objects and people
-Visual tracking
-Visual accommodation not well-developed, but can focus 18-38cm
-Visual acuity about 20/600
-See something at 20ft adult can see at 600ft
-Improves steadily over first 8 months
-3-4 months
-Some depth perception
-Roughy judge object distance
-binocular vision only
-Can’t judge distance with one eye covered
-Need to learn monocular vision cues
-4-5 months
-Can reach for nearby toys
-6-7 months
-Ability to accurately grasp
-9-10 months
-Avoid deep end of visual cliff; depth perception
-Plexiglass w/ shallow and deep end
Motor Development
-at birth: “bundle of reflexes”
Babinski: toes fan when sole of foot touched
Grasping: fingers clench object in hand
Rooting: head turns to object on cheek (e.g., breast feeding)
Moro: sudden head shift...arms swing up (protect yourself)
Note: most reflexes disappear as child grows (e.g. Babinski reflex should be gone by 8
months)
Cephalocaudal: progresses from head to feet
Proximodistal: proceeds from center of body to extremities
-2 months: sit w/ support
-6.6: sits alone
-8.6: stands (furniture)
-11: stands alone
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