Psychology 1000 Lecture Notes - Asperger Syndrome, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, Normal Distribution

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15 Apr 2012
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Chapter 9: Lecture
Intelligence I
-How do you measure intelligence?
-Are IQ tests biased?
-What is Savant Syndrome?
-What is intelligence?
Intelligence?
-a host of abilities (memory, creativity, etc…)
-What a test measures
-Can be misleading
-Several studies indicate unschooled people in remote villages can’t solve syllogisms
-Suggest preliterate people don’t (or can’t) use logical analysis
Scribner (1977)
-All Kpelle men are rice farmers, Mr. Smith isn’t. Is he a Kpelle man?
-Ecological approach
Psychometric Approach
Galton (1869)
-Looked at relatives of intelligent people
-Starts research program to identify those with low ability
-Measure simple motor and sensory abilities (rxn time)
-Believes intelligence was unitary (mental quickness); genetic
-Develops Correlation Coefficient
-Results disappointing
Binet
-request from French gov.t (public school mandatory)
-Believe intelligence was “a collection of higher-order abilities”; learned
-No correlation
-Ability result from learning
Binet and Simon (1900s)
-develop a test tapping a number of abilities (memory, match etc…)
-Correlate scores with teacher personal ratings
-Criterion validity (take score and match to criterion that is important)
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Chapter 9: Lecture
1905-1908
-tests revised and concept of mental age introduced
-Standardize test
-Get age norms (mean performance)
-Assign new test score to mental age group according to norms
-If child performs @ level of average 5 year old; MA = 5
Terman and Stern
-Adapts Binet scale for use in the USA while @ Stanford
-Stanford-Binet widely used
Stanford-Binet Items
-2 - 2 ½: insert blocks into formboard
-6: define words (i.e. Envelope)
-IQ = MA/CA x 100 *
-10 but scores at average of a 12 year old; 120 IQ
-Cant calculate the same way with older ages
-Use deviation IQ (z-score) from normal curve
-1 68%; 2 82%
-Mean 100 SD 15 (normal in WAIS)
Reliability: consistency of measurement
-Test-Reset reliability good for Stanford-Binet and WAIS-III
-R = .8 - .95 very reliable
Validity: does test measure what it’s supposed to do?
-r = .3 - .7
-IQ isn’t predictive of ability to achieve
Bias
-Is the test “culture-fair” or do the answers require specific knowledge available only to
certain (sub) cultures
-More than “academic” question
-Streaming
Dove (1968) “Chitterling test”
-test is bias and requires specific knowledge
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