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Lecture 16

Psychology 1000 Lecture 16: Lecture 16 Consciousness


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Dr.Mike
Lecture
16

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 9 pages of the document.
Consciousness
Circadian Rhythms
Consciousness
Sleep stages
Next Time: Dreams
Scan p.197-204
melatonin
What are the daily rhythms affecting humans?
What is consciousness?
Blood pressure
o
Body temperature
o
Chemical concentrations
o
daily cycles
Naturally 25 hour cycle, we artificially compressed it to 24hr
Peak level in late afternoon (best time for physical tasks)
mental tasks in the morning
optic chiasm
o
internal timing mechanism
!
in hypothalamus
o
center location
o
controlled by suprachiasmatic nucleus
a chemical called melanopsin is broken down in blue light
"
photosensitive ganglion cells
!
other cells in the retina
o
Daylight stimulates the SCN, which inhibits production of melatonin in pineal gland
we feel tired
o
Darkness removes the inhibition, resulting in more melatonin
Circadian rhythms
Jet lag & shift work
from west to east is more problematic than east to west
o
Phase advance more difficult than phase delay
seems safe
!
more effective for delay
!
probably works by relieving day time fatigue
!
Jury still out
o
Take melatonin supplement:
Disturbance
Hydrate on plane
o
Avoid alcohol
o
Get up and stretch
o
Light meals
o
resetting yourself
!
Expose self to sunlight upon survival
o
Avoid jet lag:
what we are aware of
therefore I am
!
myself is unique
o
young kids don’t realize this until the first 2 years
o
awareness of the relationship between self and the external world
keeping track of self
o
Monitoring
planning
o
Controlling
Consciousness
EX) what does your parent’s house look like?
!
It is in memory, you need to search for it though
o
Info not currently available, but could be
difficulty of pulling from preconscious to conscious, best way to fix it is to stop
thinking about it for a while and go back to it later
o
tip-of-tongue”
Preconscious level
Proposed by Freud
EX) you try to hide it, but it comes out by mistakes
!
EVERYTHING IS PURPOSEFUL
!
called Freudian slips, unconscious leakage
o
Info not accessible, but it may leak” out from time to time
vegetates state patients canthink”, they just cannot speak
!
now, trying to find a way to let them communicate
!
in Adrians experiment (UWO)
o
someone is vegetated state, they lack their connection to consciousness
A happy person never fantasizes, only an unhappy one”
o
Freud (1908)
Subconscious level
Roughly every 90 min
o
Most people daydream
Failure/success
o
Aggression
o
Sex or romance
o
Guilt
o
Problem solving
o
Top 5 fantasies
What do we fantasize about?
escape from life relieve pressure
o
Safety valve
even if you daydream of failure and aggression
o
Alters mood in positive direction
imagine reality
o
Low-risk way to deal with problems
Increase arousal
Why daydream?
1/3 of the day spent for sleep
o
Humans
giraffe
o
Least amount of sleep
Brown Bats
o
Most amount of sleep
Heart Rate lowered
o
Respiration lowered
o
so we must lie down
"
if standing, we will fall down
"
strong inhibitory signals sent to the muscles
!
Minimum of muscle activity
o
some people have trouble sleeping because of high body temperature
!
Temperature drops
o
Drop the arousal level
!
Sleeping pills
o
During sleep, body begins to shut down
Sleep
brain waves
!
look at EEG Recordings
o
Marked decrease in sensitivity to external stimulation
Stages of Sleep
Awake, eyes open: Beta waves, high frequency (40 cps) low amp
!
each step has distinctive patterns
o
roughly 40 cycles/second
!
high frequency, low amplitude
!
beta waves
o
10 cycles/second
!
very close to fall asleep, but still awake
!
very relaxed
!
alpha waves
o
15-20 mins after going to bed
!
6 cycles/second
"
amplitude increases, frequency decreases
"
theta
!
you can wake up easily
!
very sensitive to external environment
!
Stage 1
o
30 mins after going to bed
!
marked by two particular things
!
frequency slows down
!
Stage 2
o
Stages of sleep
12-16 cycles
from theta to sleep spindle
high frequency, lower amplitude
move it from hippocampus to cortex
o
preparatory pattern to restore memory
Sleep spindle
"
Follows sleep spindle
Hard to understand
Triggered by external noise
Induce seizures
Have a lot of K complex
!
K complex remove this inhibition
"
Generate lack of inhibition
!
RLS
o
Relation to RLS & epilepsy
K complex
"
1 cycle/second
deeper sleep
Delta
"
Delta waves beginning to occur, very slow (1 cps) and large amp waves
!
Stage 3
o
Delta waves begins to dominate
!
An hour after sleep
!
Deepest stage
!
Very high amplitudes
"
Only delta waves
!
Stage 4
o
However, we get out of Stage 4 pretty quickly
Afterwards, you cycle through the stages, when you are back to stage one, but are still
asleep, it is called REM sleep (rapid eye movement)
Pattern goes: 1-2-3-4-3-2-R-2-3-4-3-2-R-2-3…
Like we are awake
"
Theta and beta
!
We are somewhat conscious
"
Dreaming
!
REM
o
REM becomes longer each time, and stage 4 disappears
We get more REM than stage 4
Irritability after 72 hrs
"
Attention lapse
!
EX) awake for 48 hours, write a paper
"
Little effect on task performance
!
Cannot track them
EX) visual pursuit task
"
BUT; visual things are affected
!
Sleep deviation
o
Restorative function
Webb (1975)
o
EX. Awake at night might be prone to predators
o
Evolutionary Benefit
REM deprived subjects show reduced ability to retain new information
o
Only when REM is deprived
!
REM could be the stage where you reorganize all the new learned
information
!
REM specific
o
Learning & memory
Berry & Webb (1985)
o
Speed of cycling into REM correlated with positive mood on following day
o
REM makes you feel better
o
Mood adjustment
Why do we sleep?
20 min compared to normal 1.5hr
!
Depressed individuals tend to cycle into REM very quickly
o
Could be self-treat method
!
Perhaps, this helps improve mood in some fashion
o
* NOTE
Lecture 16

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Consciousness
Circadian Rhythms
Consciousness
Sleep stages
Next Time: Dreams
Scan p.197-204
melatonin
What are the daily rhythms affecting humans?
What is consciousness?
What happens when we sleep?
Blood pressure
o
Body temperature
o
Chemical concentrations
o
daily cycles
Naturally 25 hour cycle, we artificially compressed it to 24hr
Peak level in late afternoon (best time for physical tasks)
mental tasks in the morning
optic chiasm
o
internal timing mechanism
!
in hypothalamus
o
center location
o
controlled by suprachiasmatic nucleus
a chemical called melanopsin is broken down in blue light
"
photosensitive ganglion cells
!
other cells in the retina
o
Daylight stimulates the SCN, which inhibits production of melatonin in pineal gland
we feel tired
o
Darkness removes the inhibition, resulting in more melatonin
Circadian rhythms
Jet lag & shift work
from west to east is more problematic than east to west
o
Phase advance more difficult than phase delay
seems safe
!
more effective for delay
!
probably works by relieving day time fatigue
!
Jury still out
o
Take melatonin supplement:
Disturbance
Hydrate on plane
o
Avoid alcohol
o
Get up and stretch
o
Light meals
o
resetting yourself
!
Expose self to sunlight upon survival
o
Avoid jet lag:
what we are aware of
therefore I am
!
myself is unique
o
young kids don’t realize this until the first 2 years
o
awareness of the relationship between self and the external world
keeping track of self
o
Monitoring
planning
o
Controlling
Consciousness
EX) what does your parent’s house look like?
!
It is in memory, you need to search for it though
o
Info not currently available, but could be
difficulty of pulling from preconscious to conscious, best way to fix it is to stop
thinking about it for a while and go back to it later
o
tip-of-tongue”
Preconscious level
Proposed by Freud
EX) you try to hide it, but it comes out by mistakes
!
EVERYTHING IS PURPOSEFUL
!
called Freudian slips, unconscious leakage
o
Info not accessible, but it may leak” out from time to time
vegetates state patients canthink”, they just cannot speak
!
now, trying to find a way to let them communicate
!
in Adrians experiment (UWO)
o
someone is vegetated state, they lack their connection to consciousness
A happy person never fantasizes, only an unhappy one”
o
Freud (1908)
Subconscious level
Roughly every 90 min
o
Most people daydream
Failure/success
o
Aggression
o
Sex or romance
o
Guilt
o
Problem solving
o
Top 5 fantasies
What do we fantasize about?
escape from life relieve pressure
o
Safety valve
even if you daydream of failure and aggression
o
Alters mood in positive direction
imagine reality
o
Low-risk way to deal with problems
Increase arousal
Why daydream?
1/3 of the day spent for sleep
o
Humans
giraffe
o
Least amount of sleep
Brown Bats
o
Most amount of sleep
Heart Rate lowered
o
Respiration lowered
o
so we must lie down
"
if standing, we will fall down
"
strong inhibitory signals sent to the muscles
!
Minimum of muscle activity
o
some people have trouble sleeping because of high body temperature
!
Temperature drops
o
Drop the arousal level
!
Sleeping pills
o
During sleep, body begins to shut down
Sleep
brain waves
!
look at EEG Recordings
o
Marked decrease in sensitivity to external stimulation
Stages of Sleep
Awake, eyes open: Beta waves, high frequency (40 cps) low amp
!
each step has distinctive patterns
o
roughly 40 cycles/second
!
high frequency, low amplitude
!
beta waves
o
10 cycles/second
!
very close to fall asleep, but still awake
!
very relaxed
!
alpha waves
o
15-20 mins after going to bed
!
6 cycles/second
"
amplitude increases, frequency decreases
"
theta
!
you can wake up easily
!
very sensitive to external environment
!
Stage 1
o
30 mins after going to bed
!
marked by two particular things
!
frequency slows down
!
Stage 2
o
Stages of sleep
12-16 cycles
from theta to sleep spindle
high frequency, lower amplitude
move it from hippocampus to cortex
o
preparatory pattern to restore memory
Sleep spindle
"
Follows sleep spindle
Hard to understand
Triggered by external noise
Induce seizures
Have a lot of K complex
!
K complex remove this inhibition
"
Generate lack of inhibition
!
RLS
o
Relation to RLS & epilepsy
K complex
"
1 cycle/second
deeper sleep
Delta
"
Delta waves beginning to occur, very slow (1 cps) and large amp waves
!
Stage 3
o
Delta waves begins to dominate
!
An hour after sleep
!
Deepest stage
!
Very high amplitudes
"
Only delta waves
!
Stage 4
o
However, we get out of Stage 4 pretty quickly
Afterwards, you cycle through the stages, when you are back to stage one, but are still
asleep, it is called REM sleep (rapid eye movement)
Pattern goes: 1-2-3-4-3-2-R-2-3-4-3-2-R-2-3…
Like we are awake
"
Theta and beta
!
We are somewhat conscious
"
Dreaming
!
REM
o
REM becomes longer each time, and stage 4 disappears
We get more REM than stage 4
Irritability after 72 hrs
"
Attention lapse
!
EX) awake for 48 hours, write a paper
"
Little effect on task performance
!
Cannot track them
EX) visual pursuit task
"
BUT; visual things are affected
!
Sleep deviation
o
Restorative function
Webb (1975)
o
EX. Awake at night might be prone to predators
o
Evolutionary Benefit
REM deprived subjects show reduced ability to retain new information
o
Only when REM is deprived
!
REM could be the stage where you reorganize all the new learned
information
!
REM specific
o
Learning & memory
Berry & Webb (1985)
o
Speed of cycling into REM correlated with positive mood on following day
o
REM makes you feel better
o
Mood adjustment
Why do we sleep?
20 min compared to normal 1.5hr
!
Depressed individuals tend to cycle into REM very quickly
o
Could be self-treat method
!
Perhaps, this helps improve mood in some fashion
o
* NOTE
Lecture 16

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Consciousness
Circadian Rhythms
Consciousness
Sleep stages
Next Time: Dreams
Scan p.197-204
melatonin
What are the daily rhythms affecting humans?
What is consciousness?
What happens when we sleep?
Blood pressure
o
Body temperature
o
Chemical concentrations
o
daily cycles
Naturally 25 hour cycle, we artificially compressed it to 24hr
Peak level in late afternoon (best time for physical tasks)
mental tasks in the morning
optic chiasm
o
internal timing mechanism
!
in hypothalamus
o
center location
o
controlled by suprachiasmatic nucleus
a chemical called melanopsin is broken down in blue light
"
photosensitive ganglion cells
!
other cells in the retina
o
Daylight stimulates the SCN, which inhibits production of melatonin in pineal gland
we feel tired
o
Darkness removes the inhibition, resulting in more melatonin
Circadian rhythms
Jet lag & shift work
from west to east is more problematic than east to west
o
Phase advance more difficult than phase delay
seems safe
!
more effective for delay
!
probably works by relieving day time fatigue
!
Jury still out
o
Take melatonin supplement:
Disturbance
Hydrate on plane
o
Avoid alcohol
o
Get up and stretch
o
Light meals
o
resetting yourself
!
Expose self to sunlight upon survival
o
Avoid jet lag:
what we are aware of
therefore I am
!
myself is unique
o
young kids don’t realize this until the first 2 years
o
awareness of the relationship between self and the external world
keeping track of self
o
Monitoring
planning
o
Controlling
Consciousness
EX) what does your parent’s house look like?
!
It is in memory, you need to search for it though
o
Info not currently available, but could be
difficulty of pulling from preconscious to conscious, best way to fix it is to stop
thinking about it for a while and go back to it later
o
tip-of-tongue”
Preconscious level
Proposed by Freud
EX) you try to hide it, but it comes out by mistakes
!
EVERYTHING IS PURPOSEFUL
!
called Freudian slips, unconscious leakage
o
Info not accessible, but it may leak” out from time to time
vegetates state patients canthink”, they just cannot speak
!
now, trying to find a way to let them communicate
!
in Adrians experiment (UWO)
o
someone is vegetated state, they lack their connection to consciousness
A happy person never fantasizes, only an unhappy one”
o
Freud (1908)
Subconscious level
Roughly every 90 min
o
Most people daydream
Failure/success
o
Aggression
o
Sex or romance
o
Guilt
o
Problem solving
o
Top 5 fantasies
What do we fantasize about?
escape from life relieve pressure
o
Safety valve
even if you daydream of failure and aggression
o
Alters mood in positive direction
imagine reality
o
Low-risk way to deal with problems
Increase arousal
Why daydream?
1/3 of the day spent for sleep
o
Humans
giraffe
o
Least amount of sleep
Brown Bats
o
Most amount of sleep
Heart Rate lowered
o
Respiration lowered
o
so we must lie down
"
if standing, we will fall down
"
strong inhibitory signals sent to the muscles
!
Minimum of muscle activity
o
some people have trouble sleeping because of high body temperature
!
Temperature drops
o
Drop the arousal level
!
Sleeping pills
o
During sleep, body begins to shut down
Sleep
brain waves
!
look at EEG Recordings
o
Marked decrease in sensitivity to external stimulation
Stages of Sleep
Awake, eyes open: Beta waves, high frequency (40 cps) low amp
!
each step has distinctive patterns
o
roughly 40 cycles/second
!
high frequency, low amplitude
!
beta waves
o
10 cycles/second
!
very close to fall asleep, but still awake
!
very relaxed
!
alpha waves
o
15-20 mins after going to bed
!
6 cycles/second
"
amplitude increases, frequency decreases
"
theta
!
you can wake up easily
!
very sensitive to external environment
!
Stage 1
o
30 mins after going to bed
!
marked by two particular things
!
frequency slows down
!
Stage 2
o
Stages of sleep
12-16 cycles
from theta to sleep spindle
high frequency, lower amplitude
move it from hippocampus to cortex
o
preparatory pattern to restore memory
Sleep spindle
"
Follows sleep spindle
Hard to understand
Triggered by external noise
Induce seizures
Have a lot of K complex
!
K complex remove this inhibition
"
Generate lack of inhibition
!
RLS
o
Relation to RLS & epilepsy
K complex
"
1 cycle/second
deeper sleep
Delta
"
Delta waves beginning to occur, very slow (1 cps) and large amp waves
!
Stage 3
o
Delta waves begins to dominate
!
An hour after sleep
!
Deepest stage
!
Very high amplitudes
"
Only delta waves
!
Stage 4
o
However, we get out of Stage 4 pretty quickly
Afterwards, you cycle through the stages, when you are back to stage one, but are still
asleep, it is called REM sleep (rapid eye movement)
Pattern goes: 1-2-3-4-3-2-R-2-3-4-3-2-R-2-3…
Like we are awake
"
Theta and beta
!
We are somewhat conscious
"
Dreaming
!
REM
o
REM becomes longer each time, and stage 4 disappears
We get more REM than stage 4
Irritability after 72 hrs
"
Attention lapse
!
EX) awake for 48 hours, write a paper
"
Little effect on task performance
!
Cannot track them
EX) visual pursuit task
"
BUT; visual things are affected
!
Sleep deviation
o
Restorative function
Webb (1975)
o
EX. Awake at night might be prone to predators
o
Evolutionary Benefit
REM deprived subjects show reduced ability to retain new information
o
Only when REM is deprived
!
REM could be the stage where you reorganize all the new learned
information
!
REM specific
o
Learning & memory
Berry & Webb (1985)
o
Speed of cycling into REM correlated with positive mood on following day
o
REM makes you feel better
o
Mood adjustment
Why do we sleep?
20 min compared to normal 1.5hr
!
Depressed individuals tend to cycle into REM very quickly
o
Could be self-treat method
!
Perhaps, this helps improve mood in some fashion
o
* NOTE
Lecture 16
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