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Lecture 22

Psychology 1000 Lecture 22: Lecture 22 Memory II


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Dr.Mike
Lecture
22

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Memory II
How is memory organized?
What exactly is memory?
What evidence is there for different memory systems?
Sensory register
Info held for fraction of a second
Trace fades quickly… ie trying to remember dot patterns on the screen
Visual Icon
Auditory Echo
Short term memory (working memory):
Material held by rehearsal
No rehearsal info lost and forgets
Lasts about 20 seconds
Rapidly lost unless we actively do something with it
Very limited capacity: 7 +/-2 items, and chunk” helps
Forgetting:
-Decay: Material gets old, fades away over time
-Interference: New material pushes old materials out of the way
Jenkins & Dallenbach (1924)
People learned a 48 word list, and asked to recall them after right away, some are
asked later like 1 hr, 5 hr to 8 hr etc
If people are awake during the 8 hours, they forget most of it
If people sleep for 8 hours after remembering the list, then they can still recall 80%
of the information
Shows being awake cause interference
Acoustic coding: ie , a list of 3 word: cook, car, dish or book bar fish. Similar sounds
causes more interference
Phonological loop: Auditory
Visual Spatial sketchpad: Images & spatial
Central executive: Directs attention, recall, integration. Located in prefrontal cortex
Long term memory:
-Permanent storage
-Essentially unlimited capacity
-Semantic coding (code by meaning): ie cook car dish (ie cook dish) and more
interfered by: chef, auto, plate
How to get info from STM to LTM
-Consolidation LTP
Maintenance (repetition): keep in STM
Active Organizing
-Rehearsal
What evidence is there that STM and LTM exist?
-Evidence from cases of brain damage: eg Clive Wearing (can’t remember for more
than 2 minutes, but exceptional at playing piano/conducting)
-H.M. (an epilepsy patient, he got hippocampus removed) improved on task, could
remember how to do a task, but having no memory of doing the task!
Trish Must uses post notes every morning to know what is going on (similar to
girl in 50 first dates)
Serial position curve: If try to remember a list of letters, people tends to do better
on the first few (primacy effect -LTM) and last few ones (regency effect -STM)
If subject is asked to delay 30 seconds before recalling, and prevent rehearsal, last
few ones are forgotten, therefore its STM, and the first few words gets remembered
Lecture 22
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