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Lecture 25

Psychology 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 25: Pragmatics, Surface Roughness, Deep Structure And Surface Structure


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Dr.Mike
Lecture
25

Page:
of 3
Most common, universal feature of human society
Pervades every facet of our lives, public and private
Every culture, no matter how isolated or primitive has language
Everyone person, except under extreme deprivation/accidents, develops skills in use of
language
Language is
Letters, written and spoken symbols that stand for the referent of the world
Shared by all speakers of a language culture
A shared symbolic system for communication
Language is defined
Words of language comprise the mental lexicon
Punctuation
!
Grammar: rules that dictate the legal combination of the units of language
Language = words + rules
Basic Principles
Language is a system of symbols & rules
Properties of Language
Use of sounds, signs, gestures,
Allpws for forming & transferring mental representations
Symbolic
Rule-governed structures
Symbols combined to create meaningful units
Structure
Symbols can be combined to generate an infinite number of messages that can
have novel meaning
Generativity
3 Properties
Past, future, imaginary events, objects can be symbolically represented and
communicated
Displacement
Consists of the symbols that are used and their order. Related to the concept of
syntax (the rules that govern the order of words)
Surface structure
Refers to the underlying meaning of the combined symbols
Related to the concept of semantics (the meaning of words and sentences)
Deep Structure
Structure of Language
Different number of words, and order
EX. Sam ate the cake
!
EX. The cake was eaten by Sam
!
EX. Eaten by Sam the cake was
!
But conveys the same meaning
Different surface bit same deep
Surface vs. Deep Structure
Malformed brain structure because brain starved of stimulation
Feral Children
Learned to read and write some words but never learned to speak
Victor of Aveyron
Question: Can she learn the language
!
Found at the age of 13, completely isolated
Learned large vocabularies, but never learned grammar
Never be able to learn, because she missed the right timing
Genie
Language Acquisition
EX. Mary had a little lamb
EX. Time flies like an arrow. But fruit flies like a banana
Where sarcasm comes from
Ambiguous Sentences
The old man the ships
Demonstrates there is a risk to interpreting a sentence as it arrives
The information necessary for interpretation can often come at the end
Garden Path Sentences
Knowledge of the practical aspects of using language
Allows you to efficiently deal with the situation
!
EX. Passerby: "Do you have the time?" You: "1:52"
EX. Student: "I need you to explain this to me. Do you have the time?" Professor:
"1:52"
Rules surrounding the social context of language
Context is different. The additional information changes the question being asked despite
the surface structure of the sentence remaining the same
Pragmatics
Lecture 25
Most common, universal feature of human society
Pervades every facet of our lives, public and private
Every culture, no matter how isolated or primitive has language
Everyone person, except under extreme deprivation/accidents, develops skills in use of
language
Language is
Letters, written and spoken symbols that stand for the referent of the world
Shared by all speakers of a language culture
System enables communication
A shared symbolic system for communication
Language is defined
Words of language comprise the mental lexicon
Punctuation
!
Grammar: rules that dictate the legal combination of the units of language
Language = words + rules
Basic Principles
Language is a system of symbols & rules
Properties of Language
Use of sounds, signs, gestures,
Allpws for forming & transferring mental representations
Symbolic
Rule-governed structures
Symbols combined to create meaningful units
Structure
Symbols can be combined to generate an infinite number of messages that can
have novel meaning
Generativity
3 Properties
Past, future, imaginary events, objects can be symbolically represented and
communicated
Displacement
Consists of the symbols that are used and their order. Related to the concept of
syntax (the rules that govern the order of words)
Surface structure
Refers to the underlying meaning of the combined symbols
Related to the concept of semantics (the meaning of words and sentences)
Deep Structure
Structure of Language
Different number of words, and order
EX. Sam ate the cake
!
EX. The cake was eaten by Sam
!
EX. Eaten by Sam the cake was
!
But conveys the same meaning
Different surface bit same deep
Surface vs. Deep Structure
Malformed brain structure because brain starved of stimulation
Feral Children
Learned to read and write some words but never learned to speak
Victor of Aveyron
Question: Can she learn the language
!
Found at the age of 13, completely isolated
Learned large vocabularies, but never learned grammar
Never be able to learn, because she missed the right timing
Genie
Language Acquisition
EX. Mary had a little lamb
EX. Time flies like an arrow. But fruit flies like a banana
Where sarcasm comes from
Ambiguous Sentences
The old man the ships
Demonstrates there is a risk to interpreting a sentence as it arrives
The information necessary for interpretation can often come at the end
Garden Path Sentences
Knowledge of the practical aspects of using language
Allows you to efficiently deal with the situation
!
EX. Passerby: "Do you have the time?" You: "1:52"
EX. Student: "I need you to explain this to me. Do you have the time?" Professor:
"1:52"
Rules surrounding the social context of language
Context is different. The additional information changes the question being asked despite
the surface structure of the sentence remaining the same
Pragmatics
Lecture 25
Most common, universal feature of human society
Pervades every facet of our lives, public and private
Every culture, no matter how isolated or primitive has language
Everyone person, except under extreme deprivation/accidents, develops skills in use of
language
Language is
Letters, written and spoken symbols that stand for the referent of the world
Shared by all speakers of a language culture
System enables communication
A shared symbolic system for communication
Language is defined
Words of language comprise the mental lexicon
Punctuation
!
Grammar: rules that dictate the legal combination of the units of language
Language = words + rules
Basic Principles
Language is a system of symbols & rules
Properties of Language
Use of sounds, signs, gestures,
Allpws for forming & transferring mental representations
Symbolic
Rule-governed structures
Symbols combined to create meaningful units
Structure
Symbols can be combined to generate an infinite number of messages that can
have novel meaning
Generativity
3 Properties
Past, future, imaginary events, objects can be symbolically represented and
communicated
Displacement
Consists of the symbols that are used and their order. Related to the concept of
syntax (the rules that govern the order of words)
Surface structure
Refers to the underlying meaning of the combined symbols
Related to the concept of semantics (the meaning of words and sentences)
Deep Structure
Structure of Language
Different number of words, and order
EX. Sam ate the cake
!
EX. The cake was eaten by Sam
!
EX. Eaten by Sam the cake was
!
But conveys the same meaning
Different surface bit same deep
Surface vs. Deep Structure
Malformed brain structure because brain starved of stimulation
Feral Children
Learned to read and write some words but never learned to speak
Victor of Aveyron
Question: Can she learn the language
!
Found at the age of 13, completely isolated
Learned large vocabularies, but never learned grammar
Never be able to learn, because she missed the right timing
Genie
Language Acquisition
EX. Mary had a little lamb
EX. Time flies like an arrow. But fruit flies like a banana
Where sarcasm comes from
Ambiguous Sentences
The old man the ships
Demonstrates there is a risk to interpreting a sentence as it arrives
The information necessary for interpretation can often come at the end
Garden Path Sentences
Knowledge of the practical aspects of using language
Allows you to efficiently deal with the situation
!
EX. Passerby: "Do you have the time?" You: "1:52"
EX. Student: "I need you to explain this to me. Do you have the time?" Professor:
"1:52"
Rules surrounding the social context of language
Context is different. The additional information changes the question being asked despite
the surface structure of the sentence remaining the same
Pragmatics
Lecture 25