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Lecture 25

Psychology 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 25: Binocular Vision, Visual Acuity, Retina

Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Terry Biggs

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Psychology 1000-Cognive Development 01/28
Issues in Development
What inuences development?
Neural Development
How does the brain change in the newborn?
Visual Development
How does the visual system change over the 'rst few months of life?
Le+ frontal lobe more involved in posive emoons, right in negave
More acvity in le+ when watching happy 'lms, more in right for sad/disgusng 'lms
Visible in 10 month old infants
oHard wired
oNot learned
Changes in abilies over me
oWhat happened from the me you were to the me you aged a certain extent
What inuences development?
oNature > Maturaon VS. Nurture > Learning
oDue to both not one or the other
oObviously > interacons
oNature determines the range
Not completely hard wired
oNurture chooses the alternaves
Theory: Stage like development
oDisconnuous…things happen in spurts…stages separated by rapid growth
oQualitave di7erence
oCaterpillar to Bu9ery; 3 separate stages and disconnuous
oPiaget was a stage theorist
Theory: Connuous Development
oSmooth, connual change
oQuantave di7erent
oFish: li9le 'sh to big 'sh; can do the same things basically
Normave vs. individual development
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Typical sequence of change
Look for consistency in what people can do across a populaon
Methodology is cross-seconal
Cross seconal: measure IQ of 3 year olds and compare to 5 year olds;
di7erence between ages but consistent within the same age group
Consistency not there
Look at individual; the way I change over me is di7erent than the way
you change over me
Methodology is longitudinal
Longitudinal: measure IQ of 3 year olds and then measure their IQ at 4
years old and then at 5 years old and look at the individuals’
development. MORE me consuming than cross seconal and MORE
Neural Development
100-200 B neurons at birth
Neurons not produced a+er second trimester
Increase in weight (350-1400 g) due to glial cells and myelinaon
oNot more neurons; the neurons you have just develop more
oJust adding supplementary stu7
Number of synapses is rapidly increases
Corcal development “mirrors” emergence of abilies
oWhat you can do at one age vs. another depends on how developed your cortex
oFrontal lobe develops last
Not completely developed unl you’re 25
Sensory systems: Taste and Smell
oInfant is very much like an adult
Suck faster for sweet liquid
Reject salty liquid
Pleasant expression for bananas
Frown for ro9en eggs
Sensory system: Hearing
oAt birth; responds to wide variety of sounds
Prefer complex sounds and expressions
Especially sensive to sounds in range of human voices; 1000 cycles a
second; example, human speech
oMom read cat in the hat to baby in womb a+er second trimester; when baby was
born (like the day a+er) it preferred listening to cat in the hat by their mom than
any other person; can hear complex sounds in the womb
oHARD WIRED to aend to human speech
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