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Lecture 14

Psychology 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Ethical Dilemma, Limbic System, Dementia

Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

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Sample Exam Questions
1. The task of conservation first develops in the Piaget’s _______ period.
a. sensorimotor
b. preoperational
c. concrete operational
d. formal operational
e. none of the above
2. Research evaluating Piaget’s theory of cognitive development has found:
a. cognitive development occurs more globally than Piaget suggested
b. inconsistent with Piaget’s theory egocentrism resurfaces in adolescence
c. object permanence develops earlier than Piaget suggested
d. a stage more advanced than formal operational thinking may exist in some adults
e. all of the above
The Daycare Controversy
High quality day care provides:
stimulating environment with well-trained caretakers
few children per caretaker
low staff turnover
Daycare and Attachment
High quality daycare did not disrupt attachment to parents
Risk of insecure attachment if:
child care is poor
child spent many hours at poor day care
parents insensitive to child at home
Daycare and Social Behaviour
No significant differences through age 4.5 (day care vs. raised by mother)
More behaviour problems by age 4.5 (this effect disappeared by grade 3)
Daycare and Cognitive Performance
No significant differences through age 4.5 (daycare vs raised mother)
Among children in daycare:
higher quality day care associated with better cognitive performance
After school care
regardless of type of care, the most important thing is a secure attachment to parents
The Effects of Divorce On Children
Stats Canada (2003)
Divorce rate 40% by 30th anniversary (and many other separated)
Over pattern of maladjustment in 10% of children from non-divorce families and 20-25% of divorced families
Overall pattern of maladjustment
greater risk of academic problems, troubled relationships with family & peers, low self-esteem and depression
as adolescents
more likely to drop out of school, be unemployed, use drugs and become unmarried teen parents
as adults
more conflict in relationships, unemployment, depression (esp. females) and higher divorce rate
Kohlberg’s Moral Reasoning
Studied why people make the moral judgements they do

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Ethical dilemma
Heinz’s wife is dying of cancer. A rare drug
might save her but the druggist who made the drug for $200
Will not sell it for less than $2000. Heinz tried hard but he
could only raise $1000. The druggist refused to give Heinz
the drug for that price even though Heinz promised to pay
the rest later. So Heinz broke into the store to steal the drug.
What do you think? Should Heinz have stolen the drug?
Why? Or Why not?
* Most interested in the reason for their decision

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Moral Reasoning
Childhood through adolescence
pre-conventional to conventional reasoning
Adolescence and even adulthood
post conventional reasoning is uncommon
*A person’s moral judgements do not always reflect the same stage
Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory
Western cultural bias with its focus on fairness and justice
Male bias with its emphasis on justice Gilligan (1982) indicates that women place more emphasis on caring and others welfare
but evidence of gender bias is mixed
Moral Behaviour & Conscience
Moral reasoning doesn’t always lead to moral behaviour
Age 2
children understand there are rules and feel guilt if they break a known rule
development of impulse control is also necessary
internal regulatory mechanism even when not observed by adults/others
Freud And Conscience
superego (conscience) develops with resolution of the Oedipal complex
Many critics disagree with Freud but do agree that children internalize their values from their parents especially if:
positive relationship with parent
parents establish clear rules
discipline is firm but not harsh
Conscience & Temperament
Fearful inhibited children
internalize parental values more easily and at an earlier age
especially with gentle discipline
Fearless uninhibited children
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