Psychology 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 48: Antipsychotic, Clomipramine, Alprazolam

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31 Mar 2016
Department
Professor
March 31st, 2016
Psychology 1000
Finish Book
Next Time: Cognitive and Group Therapy, and the Exam
April 19th, 9 – 12pm EC 2168
Treatment:
Drug Therapy
Psychoanalysis
Humanistic Therapy
Questions to answer today:
How do psychoactive drug work?
What are the essential elements of Psychoanalysis?
How does the Humanistic approach differ from Psychoanalysis?
Drug Therapy:
Useful psychoactive rugs introduced only about 50 years ago
French drug company produced chlorpromazine dramatic effect on schizophrenia
o Relieve symptoms by altering synaptic communication
Anti-Anxiety:
Tranquilizers
Calming effect
Lower excitability
Heavily prescribed
o E.g. Valium,
o Generic Lorazepam, Alprazolam, Diazepam
Benzodiazepine:
o Binds at specific receptor site and increases the sensitivity of GABA
o Watch out for alcohol
Patient with neuroses prone to dependency
Occasional use can be beneficial
Can help reduce withdrawal symptoms
Chronic use not recommended:
o Should include some other therapy
Anti-Depressants:
“Mood Elevators”
Alter neurotransmitters
o NE, serotonin and dopamine
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Extremely depressed people become less sad and optimistic
o Has to work on someone who is actually clinically depressed
Tricyclic:
o Inhibit the re-uptake of serotonin and NE
MAO inhibitors:
o Inhibits MAO (the cleanup thing for synapses) effectively leaving Serotonin and
NE in synapse
o Need daily use
o 4 weeks for effectiveness
§ Tricyclics prescribed more often than MAO inhibitors since MAO have
more side effects and need a special diet
Certain drugs are effective for other disorders: Tricyclic à Clomipramine
o For Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Prozac:
o Widely used in history since there were no side effects
o On the market for 28 years
o New Wonder Drug
o Prescribed to more than 40 million (World Wide)
§ Up to 16% last year
o Inhibits the reuptake of serotonin
§ SSRI
o Few” side effects
§ Over 160 lawsuits to date: suicide linkage, not for children, etc.
o Lots of others SSRI’s and SNRI’s that have been popular
Anti Mania:
Lithium Carbonate (Eskalith)
Monoamines
Prescribed for Bipolar Disorder
o Targeting the manic phase and causing the depression phase not to return
Very successful and effective
BUT dosage is critical
o Too little à nothing
o Too much à toxic, death
Seems effective:
o But patients report that they miss the initial “high” – patients may stop taking
drug as a result
o Again use a second therapy: talking therapy since we are only treating the
symptoms and not the cause
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