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Lecture

Psychology 1000 Lecture Notes - Motivation, Drive Theory, Homeostasis


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Shelley Cross- Mellor

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Psychology Chapter 11 January 24, 2012
Chapter 11: Motivation and Emotion
What is Motivation?
o Persevere to attain dreams?
o Stretch boundaries of human achievement?
o Process that influences the direction, persistence, vigour of goal-directed behaviour
o Instinct Theory Early View, inspired by Darwin
Born with predisposition to behave in a specific, predictable way when exposed
to a particular stimulus
Perspectives on Motivation
o Modern Evolutionary Psychology
Adaptive significance is key to understanding motivation
Motivated to engage in behaviours to promote survival advantages
Example: why are we social creatures? Why do we seek the company of others
Protection
Find a mate
Sharing resources
o Drive Theory
Disruptions to homeostasis results in ‘drives’
Drives = states of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways
that reduce tension
‘pushes’ organism into action
Hunger or Thirst?
What’s wrong with this?
Not everything is at a constant equilibrium
o Incentives
Stimuli that ‘pull’ organism toward goal
o Expectancy X Value Theory
Behaviour is determined by
Strength of expectation that behaviour will lead to a goal
Incentive value that person places on goal
Motivation = expectancy x incentive value
Example: Shelley, Leslie, and Carrie similar math aptitudes
Shelley believes studying hard will result in better grades, and values an
A highly = gets an A
Leslie believes studying will help, but doesn’t value an A = gets a C
Carrie values an A, but thinks tests are tricky and studying unlikely to
help = gets a C
o Extrinsic Motivation
Performing an activity to obtain an external reward or to avoid punishment
o Intrinsic Motivation
Performing an activity for its own sake
o Extrinsic rewards decrease intrinsic motivation when they are tangible
o Extrinsic rewards perceived as information (positive feedback) increase feelings of
competence and intrinsic motivation
Psychodynamic View
o Unconscious motive affect how we behave

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Freud emphasized sexual and aggressive motives (often come out in careers
chosen)
Many modern theorists emphasize motives for self-esteem and social belonging
Perspectives on Motivation
o Humanistic Perspective
Striving for personal growth
Need hierarchy must fulfill certain needs first
Deficiency Needs
o Physical and social survival
Human Growth Needs
o Uniquely human, help us develop our potential
Self-Actualization
o ‘peak’ of the mountain – ‘be all that you can be’
Idea: as needs are met progress to full potential
Achievement Motivation
o Need for achievement
Desire for accomplishment and excellence
Stable personality characteristic
Individual differences
o People are motivated to succeed because of
Motive for success
Fear of failure
o Those with strong motive for success
Mastery Goals
Intrinsic motivation
Desire to master tasks, learn knowledge, skills
Performance-Approach Goals
Desire to be judged favourably compared to others
‘I am motivated by the thought of outperforming my peers
Situational Factors
o High-Need Achievers
Ambitious
Persist longer at difficult task
Perform best when conditions are challenging
o Strive hard for success when perceive
Responsible for outcome
Risk of not succeeding
Potential feedback
o Prefer situations of…
Family Influences
o Parental Attitudes
High need for achievement?
Want to praise success
Encourage and reward achievement, don’t punish failure
Fear of Failure
Achievement taken for granted; failure is punished

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Provide kids with cognitively stimulating home environment that has many
opportunities for learning fosters intrinsic motivation to perform academic tasks
Family and Cultural Influences
o Individualistic Cultures
Stress personal achievement
Example: Canada, USA, Western Europe
o Collectivistic Cultures
Meet expectations of family and social group
Example: China, Japan
Control of Eating
o Most believe hunger and eating are triggered when the body’s energy resources fall
below a prescribed level or set point
o A negative feedback system eating is turned on when energy is needed, off when set
point is reached
o But is there a ‘set point’?
People eat for a variety of reasons, not just hunger
What’s the Set-Point?
o If we eat to maintain an energy homeostasis, what is monitored?
o Glucostatic Theories glucose levels determine set point
o Lipostatic Theories fat stores determine set point
o Glucose levels determine when we eat, fat stores determine amount of consumption
over long-term (explaining why weight tends to be constant)
Problems with Set-Point Theories
o Doesn’t account for epidemic of eating disorders
o Inconsistencies with evolutionary pressures
o Eating is not very sensitive to changes in body fat or individual’s caloric status prior to a
meal
o It fails to account for factors such as taste, learning and social influences on eating
Positive-Incentive Perspective
o Developed because of limitations of set-point model
o We’re drawn to eat by the ‘anticipated pleasure’ of eating – we have evolved to crave
foods
o Eating is influenced by multiple factors
Learned preference for flavours
Past experiences with food
Time since last meal
Social influences
Example: eating alone or in a group
Hunger and Weight Regulation
o Signals That Start A Meal
Yes, stomach contractions correspond to feelings of hunger, but
Hunger is experienced even if nerves from stomach to brain are severed
o Signals That Start A Meal
Decline in blood glucose levels
Liver converts stored nutrients into glucose
Blood glucose levels rise
o Produces Drop-Rise Pattern In Glucose
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