Psychology 1000 Lecture Notes - Connectionism, Contiguity, Observational Learning

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Learning Theories
Pavlov, Thorndike and Skinner
Believed only observable behaviour is relevant to psychology
Formation of associations
Learning Principles One vs. Two factor Theories
Classical (or Pavlovian) Conditioning
Operant (or Skinnerian) Conditioning
Observational Learning
Cognition & Learning
What is Learning?
Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior which is independent
of the effects of maturation and temporary factors such as Fatigue or Sensory
adaptation
Classes of Theories
Theories will differ in terms of the language used to describe them.
How you learn ANYTHING
Some will be very connectionist while other will be more cognatavistic
However, ALL will tend towards abstraction in order to gain generality
There are two major classes of theories
1. SINGLE FACTOR THEORIES
Assertion is that one type of learning is predominant
One basic process or principle underlies all forms of learning such as:
1. Principle of Contiguity
Response in the presence of a particular stimuli leads to
learning through the formation of an association
Strongly linked to Classical or Pavlovian conditioning
However, it is not entirely absent from the Operant
paradigm which may also be interpreted via contiguity
2. Principle of Reinforcement
Clark Hull’s Original Operant learning paradigm
Contention is that drive reduction is the motivating factor in
learning
E.g., Hunger Eat Reduction of drive to eat
However, an unconditioned Stimulus may also be
interpreted as setting up a drive reduction situation
2. TWO FACTOR
The most notable Theorists who have utilized the combination of
Contiguity and Reinforcement in their theories are:
E.L. Thorndike and B.F. Skinner
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Document Summary

Believed only observable behaviour is relevant to psychology. Learning principles one vs. two factor theories. What is learning: learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior which is independent of the effects of maturation and temporary factors such as fatigue or sensory adaptation. Assertion is that one type of learning is predominant. One basic process or principle underlies all forms of learning such as: principle of contiguity. Response in the presence of a particular stimuli leads to learning through the formation of an association. Strongly linked to classical or pavlovian conditioning. However, it is not entirely absent from the operant paradigm which may also be interpreted via contiguity: principle of reinforcement. Contention is that drive reduction is the motivating factor in learning. E. g. , hunger eat reduction of drive to eat. However, an unconditioned stimulus may also be interpreted as setting up a drive reduction situation: two factor. The most notable theorists who have utilized the combination of.

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