States of Consciousness Psychology Notes.pdf

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23 Nov 2012
Department
Professor
Subjective and private
Dynamic
Self-reflective and central to our sense of “self”
Consciousness
Self-reports
e.g electrodes
Behavioural measures
Measuring states of consciousness
“The tip of the iceberg”
Current awareness of thoughts and perceptions
The conscious mind
Outside current awareness
Can be recalled under certain conditions
Guilt is the thing that keeps us in check
Super ego:
The preconscious mind
Unavailable to consciousness
Includes instincts such as sex drive and aggression
The Unconscious mind
Freud's Level of consciousness
Controlled processing: Voluntary use of attention and conscious processing
Automatic processing: Activities carried out with little or no effort which may not require or give rise to
conscious awareness
Reisberg (1997): The cognitive unconscious works in harmony with our conscious thoughts
The cognitive unconcious
Unconscious processes can affect emotion and motivation
The Emotional Unconscious
Interacting “modules” or brain networks for sensation, perception, memory, emotions etc. alter our consciousness
The Modular Mind
Ego Superego } Conscious
UNCONSCIOUS
Id
States of Consciousness
November 6, 2012
12:51 PM
States of Consciousness - Lecture 6 Page 1
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Are regulated by the suprachiasmatic nuclei in the hypothalamus
Environmental factors like the day-night cycle also affect circadian rhythms
Circadian rhythms are daily biological cycles
Tendency to become depressed during certain months of the year
More prevalent in Canada than the U.S.
Linked to northern latitudes
Seasonal Affective Disorder
Oral Melatonin to reset circadian rhythm
Jet lag
Shift to Daylight Savings (spring) leads to a temporary increase in
accidental deaths (Coren, 1966
Nightshift work
Distruption of Circadian rhythms
Circadian rhythms
November 6, 2012
12:55 PM
States of Consciousness - Lecture 6 Page 2
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Stages of sleep
Stage 1
Theta waves
Stage 2
Sleep Spindles
Stage 3
Delta waves
Stage 4
Deep sleep
REM
Dreams Hours of Sleep
1 2 43 5 6 7 8
Sleep Stage
1
2
4
3
REM REM REM REM REM
Awake
A typical night’s sleep
Sleep allows us to recharge our bodies and recover from
fatigue
Restoration Model
Sleep’s main purpose is to increase a species’ chances of
survival
Evolutionary/ circadian rhythm model
Theories of Sleep
Insomnia: Chronic difficulty in falling asleep
Narcolepsy: Sudden, uncontrollable sleep attacks
Sleep apnea: Breathing stops and restarts during sleep
Sleepwalking
Nightmares and night terrors
Sleep Disorders
Sleep
November 6, 2012
1:17 PM
States of Consciousness - Lecture 6 Page 3
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