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Lecture 4

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Western University
Psychology 2011A/B
Tom Haffie

Lecture 4 PSYA02 Notes • Spearman’s Two Factor Theory • Spearman found that many tests of intellectual ability were moderately and positively correlated, leading him to conclude that every intellectual activity involves both: o A general factor (g)—common across all tests; how smart you are on average. It is broken down into subcategories: • apprehension of experience • eduction of relations (ability to see links) • eduction of correlates (ability to apply rules) o A specific factor (s) —unique to each test o How to Identify General Intellectual Abilities: • One way is to correlate intelligence tests; if correlation is 1, then we can conclude on general ability when doing tests. This is only useful if you are comparing two tests. What about more than two tests? Spearman developed the factor analysis: a statistical procedure for data reduction. • Cattell’s Two Factor Theory o Fluid intelligence (gf): The person’s native intellectual ability; his or her potential to learn and solve problems, as defined by performance on relatively culture-free tasks (ex. memory span, pattern recognition). This intelligence matures from childhood to adolescence but declines as you age further. o Crystallized intelligence (g c: What the person has learned or accomplished through the use of his or her fluid intelligence; the information acquired from one’s culture (ex. vocabulary, general Information). • Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory o Analytical Intelligence: The ability to plan and execute tasks o Creative Intelligence: The ability to cope with new problems effectively (and to routinize
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