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psych2020_hallucinogens.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 2020A/B
Professor
Riley Hinson

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PSYCH2020 Hallucinogens  Alucinere: Latin word for wander in mind, talk idly, or prate  Not all hallucinogens produce true hallucinogens  DSM-IV definition: sensory perception that has the compelling sense of reality of a true perception but that occurs without external stimulation of the relevant sensory organ…distortion of sensory information  Psychotogenics: causing psychosis  Psychotomimic: mimicking psychosis  Delirients: interfere with the cholinergic system  4 categories o Cholinergic hallucinogines  Arecoline  Scopolamine  Atropine  Ibotenic acid o Serotonergic  LSD  Psilocybin  DMT  Lysergic Acid Amide  Bufotenine o Methylated Amphetamines (noradrenergic hallucinogens)  Mescaline  MDMA  Ecstasy o Other  Ketamine  PCP  Salvinorin Cholinergic Hallucinogens  Lethal if taken in large doses  Found in plants – serve as a protective function for plants  Can be both agonists and antagonists (increase/decrease activity resulting in delirium) Amanita Muscaria  Known as the flu agaric mushroom – due to a history of placing slices in milk to attract and kill flies  Bright red cap with speckled dots PSYCH2020  Known “soma” in Hindu legends, dating back 3500 yrs  Vikings would consume them before raiding a village o Produced state of agitated raving o Berserkers  Contains Ibotenic Acid and Muscimole o Excreted in urine largely unchanged – effective for up to 5x o Practice in Siberian tribes  Effects o Positive  Initial periods of good humor and light euphoria  Feelings of increased power  Agitated raving  Visions of the supernatural and illusions of grandeur o Negative  Lacrimation (watering eyes)  Salivation  Sweating  Pinpoint pupils  Abdominal pain Ibogaine  Found in Central Africa (Gabon) and is used by native hunters who chew the root of the plant to obtain minor effects  Low doses o Stimulant – allows hunters to endure long treks and searches for food o Sold in France in the 1960’s as an over the counter fatigue medication  If enough pills were taken, mystical effects were experienced  Howard Lotsof: a heroin addict who claimed that ibogaine helped him become drug free o Thought of as a street cure o US gov’t tested this – no strong results o Ibogaine is still used in drug treatment clinics in Canada  Another way to increase neural activity o Increase the presence of acetylcholine (ACh) via inhibition of the cholinesterase action  breaks down ACh …similar to the inhibition of GABA and effect on dopamine levels o Organophosphorus compounds  Widely used insecticides (Parathion and malathion) and chemical warfar agents (Sarin and DFP)  Unionizable, lipid soluble, nearly irreversible effects (prevent action of cholinesterase)  Capable of absorbing across skin PSYCH2020  Trimedoxime, atropine, and benzactyzine(TAB) can counter the cholinergic effects of chemical warfare agents Cholinergic Antagonist Hallucinogens  Block muscarinic cholinergic receptors  produce hallucinogenic effects Atropa Belladonna  Atropine is the alkaloid of a plant known as “deadly nightshade” or “love apples”  Origins o Atropos: eldest of the Greek fates…cut thread of life o Belladonna: women put berry juice in eye, dilated pupils were considered attractive  Found in Europe, N. Africa, and Asia  Produces a bell shaped, purple-ish flower tinged with green, has bluish-black berries  Atropine was isolated in 1831  Blocks cholinergic receptors, reducing neural activity, o Rapid heartbeat o Dilated pupils o Loss of balance and staggering  Low doses produce and increase in general arousal  Slightly higher doses o Sedative effects o Dreamlike state o Pleasing hallucinations o Vivid and erotic dreams o Sense of weightlessness  Higher doses o An initial phase of pleasantness o Pleasantness quickly replaced by frightening images and psychotic reaction o Recreational use unheard of Datura Stramonium  Jimsonweed, Jamestown weed  Contains atropine, scopomaline, and hyoscamine (all cholinergic blockers) o Scopomaline and atropine produce a feeling of weightlessness and a sensation of flying o Women sat on broomsticks and thought they were flying  Used to fortify marijuana and opium preparation in the east and india o Leaves used to make cigarettes in these regions o These cigarettes were sold in Canada ti’ll the 70’s as an asthma treatment  Effects produced are nearly the same as Atropa o Low doses PSYCH2020  Drowsiness  Dream like state  Euphoria  Produces amnesia  Can be used as a medication prior to surgery o High doses  Unpleasant hallucinations  White and purple trumpet flower with large jagged leaves and thorny fruity pods  50-100 seeds each fall o 10-20 seeds = low dose o 50 seeds = hallucinations and potentially fatal  Ontario teens require hospitalization from eating too many every year Henbane  Contains scopolamine and hyoscyamine  Plants used to poison Hamlets father in the play  Supposedly used in sexual orgies in the middle ages  Purple veined yellowish flowers with hairy leaves  Similar effects to other hallucinogens mentioned above o Has an aversive effect on chickens… Mandragora Offiniranum  Contains atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine  Found in europe, n. Africa and asia  Mandrake = potent male o Roots look similar to a human  Medieval lore: the plants grew wherever a hanged mans semen fell to the ground  Myth that the plant shrieked when uprooted and would drive everyone mad  Low doses o Depressant, used as a sedative hypnotic drug  High Doses o Produces hallucinations o Delirium o All other cholinergic antagonist effects Serotonergic Hallucinogens  Produce effect by acting on serotonergic neurons Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)  First synthesized in 1983 by Albert Hoffman PSYCH2020  Lysergic Acid amide is an alkaloid found in Ergot th  In hoffmans 25 derivative he added 2 ethyl groups to the amide o LSD-25 = strong hallucinogenic properties  Minimal psychoactive dose – a grain of salt  Used in psychotherapy in the 50’s and 60’s  1966  schedule one drug in US …no medical properties and high abuse potential  LSD used peaked in the 60’s and 70’s o from 1967-1971 LSD use in college students rose from 1%-18%  Administration o Orally  Tablet  Gelatin capsule  Absorbent decorative paper (blotter acid) o Effects  50-60 minute onset  Peak 90 mins  Duration 5-12 hours o Completely metabolized in an inactive form in the liver …very slow process  Symptoms o Increased body temperature o Tachycardia o Dilated pupils o Sweating and chills o Analgesia  Provides more pain free hours than opiates but there is less of a desire to take the drug again o Effects are primarily visual  1 effects is wave like and rhythmic movement in objects  Object trails …trail of objects as it moves  Form constants  When eyes are closed o Images of gratings o Latticework o Honeycombs o Spirals o Synethesia  Senses fuse to one another  Eg. See sound and hear taste o Unprovoked emotional swings o Distortions in time perception o Difficulty distinguishing themselves from their surroundings - ego disintegration  Bad Trips PSYCH2020 o Common in novice users or users with pre existing psychological disturbance o Non existent in users who unknowingly take the drug o Fear that the effect is permanent o Occurs around 3%  Flashbacks o Unexpected psychedelic experiences after the most recent use of LSD – estimate range of 33% of users will experience a flashback o Users respond to a cue that was related to a previous drug experience that evokes a particularly vivid memory  LSD50 is 14000ug…roughly 300x more than the minimal psychoactive dose  Tolerance o Occurs to most of the hallucinogenic effects in 3-4 days of daily exposure and occurs very quickly to other serotonergic and nonadrenergic hallucinogens o Tolerance is lost after a few drug free days o No evidence of physical dependence developing  LSD resembles serotonin Raphe Nuclei  Part of a ascending reticular activating system  ARAS filter sensory information  LSD Recent research shows that LSD acts as an agonist on postsynaptic 5-HT receptors 2  Blocking 5-HT2receptors antagonizes the hallucinogenic effects of LSD  New evidence shows that the mechanism of agonism at 5-HT 1eceptors, whereby it suppresses raphe activity, is still relevant. Lysergic Acid Amide  Less potent (1/10 potency of LSD)  Naturally occurring  Related to LSD  Found in Ergot o Moldy grains o Morning glory seeds o Seeds of Hawaiian baby woodrose o Sleepy grass  May have played a roles in Salem witch trials o Trials took place after favorable weather for Ergot growth o Behaviors that were linked to witchcraft might have been caused by consumption of the infested grain Psilocybin  Naturally occurring substance in mushrooms native to s. mexico and central America PSYCH2020  Isolated in 1958 by Hoffman  Dates back to 1000BC in Mayan culture  Aztec called it teonacnactl = flesh of gods
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