Class Notes (839,076)
Canada (511,183)
Psychology (6,282)


13 Pages

Course Code
Psychology 2020A/B
Riley Hinson

This preview shows pages 1,2,3. Sign up to view the full 13 pages of the document.
PSYCH2020 Hallucinogens  Alucinere: Latin word for wander in mind, talk idly, or prate  Not all hallucinogens produce true hallucinogens  DSM-IV definition: sensory perception that has the compelling sense of reality of a true perception but that occurs without external stimulation of the relevant sensory organ…distortion of sensory information  Psychotogenics: causing psychosis  Psychotomimic: mimicking psychosis  Delirients: interfere with the cholinergic system  4 categories o Cholinergic hallucinogines  Arecoline  Scopolamine  Atropine  Ibotenic acid o Serotonergic  LSD  Psilocybin  DMT  Lysergic Acid Amide  Bufotenine o Methylated Amphetamines (noradrenergic hallucinogens)  Mescaline  MDMA  Ecstasy o Other  Ketamine  PCP  Salvinorin Cholinergic Hallucinogens  Lethal if taken in large doses  Found in plants – serve as a protective function for plants  Can be both agonists and antagonists (increase/decrease activity resulting in delirium) Amanita Muscaria  Known as the flu agaric mushroom – due to a history of placing slices in milk to attract and kill flies  Bright red cap with speckled dots PSYCH2020  Known “soma” in Hindu legends, dating back 3500 yrs  Vikings would consume them before raiding a village o Produced state of agitated raving o Berserkers  Contains Ibotenic Acid and Muscimole o Excreted in urine largely unchanged – effective for up to 5x o Practice in Siberian tribes  Effects o Positive  Initial periods of good humor and light euphoria  Feelings of increased power  Agitated raving  Visions of the supernatural and illusions of grandeur o Negative  Lacrimation (watering eyes)  Salivation  Sweating  Pinpoint pupils  Abdominal pain Ibogaine  Found in Central Africa (Gabon) and is used by native hunters who chew the root of the plant to obtain minor effects  Low doses o Stimulant – allows hunters to endure long treks and searches for food o Sold in France in the 1960’s as an over the counter fatigue medication  If enough pills were taken, mystical effects were experienced  Howard Lotsof: a heroin addict who claimed that ibogaine helped him become drug free o Thought of as a street cure o US gov’t tested this – no strong results o Ibogaine is still used in drug treatment clinics in Canada  Another way to increase neural activity o Increase the presence of acetylcholine (ACh) via inhibition of the cholinesterase action  breaks down ACh …similar to the inhibition of GABA and effect on dopamine levels o Organophosphorus compounds  Widely used insecticides (Parathion and malathion) and chemical warfar agents (Sarin and DFP)  Unionizable, lipid soluble, nearly irreversible effects (prevent action of cholinesterase)  Capable of absorbing across skin PSYCH2020  Trimedoxime, atropine, and benzactyzine(TAB) can counter the cholinergic effects of chemical warfare agents Cholinergic Antagonist Hallucinogens  Block muscarinic cholinergic receptors  produce hallucinogenic effects Atropa Belladonna  Atropine is the alkaloid of a plant known as “deadly nightshade” or “love apples”  Origins o Atropos: eldest of the Greek fates…cut thread of life o Belladonna: women put berry juice in eye, dilated pupils were considered attractive  Found in Europe, N. Africa, and Asia  Produces a bell shaped, purple-ish flower tinged with green, has bluish-black berries  Atropine was isolated in 1831  Blocks cholinergic receptors, reducing neural activity, o Rapid heartbeat o Dilated pupils o Loss of balance and staggering  Low doses produce and increase in general arousal  Slightly higher doses o Sedative effects o Dreamlike state o Pleasing hallucinations o Vivid and erotic dreams o Sense of weightlessness  Higher doses o An initial phase of pleasantness o Pleasantness quickly replaced by frightening images and psychotic reaction o Recreational use unheard of Datura Stramonium  Jimsonweed, Jamestown weed  Contains atropine, scopomaline, and hyoscamine (all cholinergic blockers) o Scopomaline and atropine produce a feeling of weightlessness and a sensation of flying o Women sat on broomsticks and thought they were flying  Used to fortify marijuana and opium preparation in the east and india o Leaves used to make cigarettes in these regions o These cigarettes were sold in Canada ti’ll the 70’s as an asthma treatment  Effects produced are nearly the same as Atropa o Low doses PSYCH2020  Drowsiness  Dream like state  Euphoria  Produces amnesia  Can be used as a medication prior to surgery o High doses  Unpleasant hallucinations  White and purple trumpet flower with large jagged leaves and thorny fruity pods  50-100 seeds each fall o 10-20 seeds = low dose o 50 seeds = hallucinations and potentially fatal  Ontario teens require hospitalization from eating too many every year Henbane  Contains scopolamine and hyoscyamine  Plants used to poison Hamlets father in the play  Supposedly used in sexual orgies in the middle ages  Purple veined yellowish flowers with hairy leaves  Similar effects to other hallucinogens mentioned above o Has an aversive effect on chickens… Mandragora Offiniranum  Contains atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine  Found in europe, n. Africa and asia  Mandrake = potent male o Roots look similar to a human  Medieval lore: the plants grew wherever a hanged mans semen fell to the ground  Myth that the plant shrieked when uprooted and would drive everyone mad  Low doses o Depressant, used as a sedative hypnotic drug  High Doses o Produces hallucinations o Delirium o All other cholinergic antagonist effects Serotonergic Hallucinogens  Produce effect by acting on serotonergic neurons Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)  First synthesized in 1983 by Albert Hoffman PSYCH2020  Lysergic Acid amide is an alkaloid found in Ergot th  In hoffmans 25 derivative he added 2 ethyl groups to the amide o LSD-25 = strong hallucinogenic properties  Minimal psychoactive dose – a grain of salt  Used in psychotherapy in the 50’s and 60’s  1966  schedule one drug in US …no medical properties and high abuse potential  LSD used peaked in the 60’s and 70’s o from 1967-1971 LSD use in college students rose from 1%-18%  Administration o Orally  Tablet  Gelatin capsule  Absorbent decorative paper (blotter acid) o Effects  50-60 minute onset  Peak 90 mins  Duration 5-12 hours o Completely metabolized in an inactive form in the liver …very slow process  Symptoms o Increased body temperature o Tachycardia o Dilated pupils o Sweating and chills o Analgesia  Provides more pain free hours than opiates but there is less of a desire to take the drug again o Effects are primarily visual  1 effects is wave like and rhythmic movement in objects  Object trails …trail of objects as it moves  Form constants  When eyes are closed o Images of gratings o Latticework o Honeycombs o Spirals o Synethesia  Senses fuse to one another  Eg. See sound and hear taste o Unprovoked emotional swings o Distortions in time perception o Difficulty distinguishing themselves from their surroundings - ego disintegration  Bad Trips PSYCH2020 o Common in novice users or users with pre existing psychological disturbance o Non existent in users who unknowingly take the drug o Fear that the effect is permanent o Occurs around 3%  Flashbacks o Unexpected psychedelic experiences after the most recent use of LSD – estimate range of 33% of users will experience a flashback o Users respond to a cue that was related to a previous drug experience that evokes a particularly vivid memory  LSD50 is 14000ug…roughly 300x more than the minimal psychoactive dose  Tolerance o Occurs to most of the hallucinogenic effects in 3-4 days of daily exposure and occurs very quickly to other serotonergic and nonadrenergic hallucinogens o Tolerance is lost after a few drug free days o No evidence of physical dependence developing  LSD resembles serotonin Raphe Nuclei  Part of a ascending reticular activating system  ARAS filter sensory information  LSD Recent research shows that LSD acts as an agonist on postsynaptic 5-HT receptors 2  Blocking 5-HT2receptors antagonizes the hallucinogenic effects of LSD  New evidence shows that the mechanism of agonism at 5-HT 1eceptors, whereby it suppresses raphe activity, is still relevant. Lysergic Acid Amide  Less potent (1/10 potency of LSD)  Naturally occurring  Related to LSD  Found in Ergot o Moldy grains o Morning glory seeds o Seeds of Hawaiian baby woodrose o Sleepy grass  May have played a roles in Salem witch trials o Trials took place after favorable weather for Ergot growth o Behaviors that were linked to witchcraft might have been caused by consumption of the infested grain Psilocybin  Naturally occurring substance in mushrooms native to s. mexico and central America PSYCH2020  Isolated in 1958 by Hoffman  Dates back to 1000BC in Mayan culture  Aztec called it teonacnactl = flesh of gods
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2,3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.