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TOBACCO Lecture Notes

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Psychology 2020A/B
Riley Hinson

TOBACCO  First users: Mayans in Central America (as far back as 300AD)  When Europeans landed in the “New World”, they saw Natives roll leaves into rods, light them, and insert them into their nostrils o Explorers thought they were “drinking smoke” or “perfuming themselves”  Explorer conveyed tobacco back to Europe in the mid 1500s, where it’s popularity grew (Europeans were primary settlers in NA)  Consumed primarily via pipe smoke (1600s) in all parts of society & by both sexes (tobacco houses – similar to opium dens)  Numerous medical uses were cited for nicotine derived from smoke o Smoke was even prescribed for bowel obstruction with smoke being blown into the rectum (bellows, sitting devices, funnel devices)  1700s – SNUFF: finely ground tobacco, pinched from box o most popular form of tobacco use o kept in highly ornate snuff boxes and were snorted into nasal passages o dry snuff was snorted, wet snuff was chewed?  1800s – chewing tobacco; loose leaf (long strips) or plugs (rectangular cubes) of shredded tobacco mixed with ingredients like molasses and then pressed o one aspect of chewing tobacco that upset users and non-users was the spitting of the juice into spittoons or cuspidors (messy..but rich)  Mid 1800s – first rolled form of tobacco into cigars (became popular in the US) o Cigarettes appeared in the 1850s and grew… o Increasingly popular with the invention of the rolling machine (James Bonsack 1881)  Bans and protests o King James I (England) was strongly against smoking (especially while dining) before its effects were even known (he refuted all medical claims), and also refuted second hand smoke  Wrote and published A CONTERBLASTE TO TOBACCO o 1624 Pope Urban VIII – issued worldwide smoking ban among Catholics because he thought sneezing from smoking and snuffing resembled sexual ecstacy o 1633 Sultan Murad IV – prohibited smoking in the Ottoman Empire  Ibrahim the Mad lifted ban in 1647  Toabbaco joined coffee, wine, and opium as one of the four “cushions on the sofa of pleasure” o 1895 North Dakota first state to ban cigarette selling and was followed by 14 other states o 1899 Lucy Gaston – Anti Cigarette League  called them “coffin nails”  took antismoking campaign national o Adolf Hitler  Called tobacco “the wrath of the Red Man against the White man” as a get-even tactic for the destruction that alcohol had brought to native people  Started aggressive anti-smoking campaign, including taxes and bans on smoking in public places o Bans didn’t last long because all levels of government rely on the tac revenue generated by tobacco sales  Cigarette consumption per capita in the US peakerd at 4300 in 1964 (when 40% of the US adults were smokers) – compared to 1700 in 2005  **REMEMBER CHARTS FROM CLASS  Had steadily declined since that time (tv exposure and release of report linking tobacco and lung disease)  Ages 20-24 always show highest levels of smoking  1995 – 45 billion cigarettes produced in Canada, compare to 2003 – 35 billion (decline, but the # of cigs can still circle the equator ~112 times)  smoking rates are lower in people who are more educated o higher in developing countries, lower in North America and Europe o The highest per capita rates, around 3000-2500, are in Greece and more of the Eastern European countries o Canada and the US ~ 1000 per capita  % of Canadians Smoking – 70% in the 1950s (40s-50s because of WWII), steadily declined to 18% today  Past year cigarette use o Ont. Grade 12 students – 2011: 15% o Canadian Undergrads – 2004: 13%, 1998: 17% o Now an increase in students who are reporting to have never tried a cigarette  Smokers die up to 12 years earlier than non-smokers o Estimated that a persons life is shortened by 14 minutes with every cigarette smoked  Smoking is estimated to be responsible for: o 30% of deaths due to coronary heart disease o 80-90% of all cases of chronic obstructive lung disease o 30% of all cancers o 90% of lung cancers  The 70s & 80s had strong advertising for WOMEN o Strongly endorsed as a weight control method (eg. Virginia Slims) o Movie stars encouraged smoking (especially in adolescents) o Flinstones commercial – Winston Cigs o Doctors commercial – prefer Camel cigs  Tobacco use extracts heavy costs on the user and society o Usually in the form of adverse health consequences o Harmful effects associated with the use of tobacco products cost Canadians more in health care expenses, lost productivity and premature death than the combines total for alcohol and illegal drugs o It is estimated that tobacco resulted in $17 billion in costs in 1992 (%541 per Canadian) – illegal drugs was only $14.5 billion  Of the 40 000 canadians estimated to have died in 2002 from substance related problems, 37 000 were related to tobacco use (serosis in liver, car accident, etc.)  Environmental tobacco smoke o Mainstream smoke – smoke exhaled by smoker o Side-stream smoke – smoke emanating from lit tobacco  More harmful than mainstream because its not filtered and still inhaled nd  Recent study found that exposure to 2 hand smoke causes and increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia  Depression – most common disorder for smokers nd  Babies exposed to 2 hand smoke at increased risk of SIDS o STUDY: 70% of SIDndcases are from a smoking parent  Children exposed to 2 hand smoke at risk of bronchitis, pneumonia & asthma  Characteristics of Smokers: o Genetic influence, young age, low status, less education, high coffee/alcohol consumption, weight control (females), social influences (peer group or parents), low conscientiousness and agreeableness, high extroversion, increased neuroticism, more anxiety, less self- control, less morningness & more eveningness (smokers tend to be night people)  Evidence for higher incidence of certain mental disorders o Comorbidity – 41% of smokers have another mental disorder (ex. Depression, alcoholism)  Nicotine may have antidepressant effects  Research shows: relationship between averse childhood experiences and smoking o Suggesting smoking used as a form of pharmacological relief from unpl
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