Psychology 2020A/B Lecture Notes - Brainstem, Reuptake, Sidestream Smoke

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Published on 16 Apr 2013
School
Western University
Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2020A/B
Professor
TOBACCO
First users: Mayans in Central America (as far back as 300AD)
When Europeans landed in the “New World”, they saw Natives roll leaves into
rods, light them, and insert them into their nostrils
o Explorers thought they were “drinking smoke” or “perfuming
themselves”
Explorer conveyed tobacco back to Europe in the mid 1500s, where it’s
popularity grew (Europeans were primary settlers in NA)
Consumed primarily via pipe smoke (1600s) in all parts of society & by both
sexes (tobacco houses similar to opium dens)
Numerous medical uses were cited for nicotine derived from smoke
o Smoke was even prescribed for bowel obstruction with smoke being
blown into the rectum (bellows, sitting devices, funnel devices)
1700s SNUFF: finely ground tobacco, pinched from box
o most popular form of tobacco use
o kept in highly ornate snuff boxes and were snorted into nasal passages
o dry snuff was snorted, wet snuff was chewed?
1800s chewing tobacco; loose leaf (long strips) or plugs (rectangular cubes)
of shredded tobacco mixed with ingredients like molasses and then pressed
o one aspect of chewing tobacco that upset users and non-users was
the spitting of the juice into spittoons or cuspidors (messy..but rich)
Mid 1800s first rolled form of tobacco into cigars (became popular in the
US)
o Cigarettes appeared in the 1850s and grew…
o Increasingly popular with the invention of the rolling machine (James
Bonsack 1881)
Bans and protests
o King James I (England) was strongly against smoking (especially while
dining) before its effects were even known (he refuted all medical
claims), and also refuted second hand smoke
Wrote and published A CONTERBLASTE TO TOBACCO
o 1624 Pope Urban VIII issued worldwide smoking ban among
Catholics because he thought sneezing from smoking and snuffing
resembled sexual ecstacy
o 1633 Sultan Murad IV prohibited smoking in the Ottoman Empire
Ibrahim the Mad lifted ban in 1647
Toabbaco joined coffee, wine, and opium as one of the four
“cushions on the sofa of pleasure”
o 1895 North Dakota first state to ban cigarette selling and was followed
by 14 other states
o 1899 Lucy Gaston Anti Cigarette League
called them “coffin nails”
took antismoking campaign national
o Adolf Hitler
Called tobacco “the wrath of the Red Man against the White
man” as a get-even tactic for the destruction that alcohol had
brought to native people
Started aggressive anti-smoking campaign, including taxes and
bans on smoking in public places
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o Bans didn’t last long because all levels of government rely on the tac
revenue generated by tobacco sales
Cigarette consumption per capita in the US peakerd at 4300 in
1964 (when 40% of the US adults were smokers) compared to
1700 in 2005
**REMEMBER CHARTS FROM CLASS
Had steadily declined since that time (tv exposure and release
of report linking tobacco and lung disease)
Ages 20-24 always show highest levels of smoking
1995 45 billion cigarettes produced in Canada, compare to 2003 35 billion
(decline, but the # of cigs can still circle the equator ~112 times)
smoking rates are lower in people who are more educated
o higher in developing countries, lower in North America and Europe
o The highest per capita rates, around 3000-2500, are in Greece and
more of the Eastern European countries
o Canada and the US ~ 1000 per capita
% of Canadians Smoking 70% in the 1950s (40s-50s because of WWII),
steadily declined to 18% today
Past year cigarette use
o Ont. Grade 12 students 2011: 15%
o Canadian Undergrads 2004: 13%, 1998: 17%
o Now an increase in students who are reporting to have never tried a
cigarette
Smokers die up to 12 years earlier than non-smokers
o Estimated that a persons life is shortened by 14 minutes with every
cigarette smoked
Smoking is estimated to be responsible for:
o 30% of deaths due to coronary heart disease
o 80-90% of all cases of chronic obstructive lung disease
o 30% of all cancers
o 90% of lung cancers
The 70s & 80s had strong advertising for WOMEN
o Strongly endorsed as a weight control method (eg. Virginia Slims)
o Movie stars encouraged smoking (especially in adolescents)
o Flinstones commercial Winston Cigs
o Doctors commercial prefer Camel cigs
Tobacco use extracts heavy costs on the user and society
o Usually in the form of adverse health consequences
o Harmful effects associated with the use of tobacco products cost
Canadians more in health care expenses, lost productivity and
premature death than the combines total for alcohol and illegal drugs
o It is estimated that tobacco resulted in $17 billion in costs in 1992
(%541 per Canadian) illegal drugs was only $14.5 billion
Of the 40 000 canadians estimated to have died in 2002 from substance
related problems, 37 000 were related to tobacco use (serosis in liver, car
accident, etc.)
Environmental tobacco smoke
o Mainstream smoke smoke exhaled by smoker
o Side-stream smoke smoke emanating from lit tobacco
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Document Summary

First users: mayans in central america (as far back as 300ad) When europeans landed in the new world , they saw natives roll leaves into rods, light them, and insert them into their nostrils: explorers thought they were drinking smoke or perfuming themselves . Explorer conveyed tobacco back to europe in the mid 1500s, where it"s popularity grew (europeans were primary settlers in na) Consumed primarily via pipe smoke (1600s) in all parts of society & by both sexes (tobacco houses similar to opium dens) Numerous medical uses were cited for nicotine derived from smoke: smoke was even prescribed for bowel obstruction with smoke being blown into the rectum (bellows, sitting devices, funnel devices) Mid 1800s first rolled form of tobacco into cigars (became popular in the. Us: cigarettes appeared in the 1850s and grew . Increasingly popular with the invention of the rolling machine (james.

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