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Lecture

CAFFEINE lecture/text notes

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 2020A/B
Professor
Riley Hinson

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CAFFEINE  World’s most commonly used drug  80% of the world consumes a caffeinated drink daily o World 70 mg Canada 210mg US 240mg Sweden 425mg UK 450mg  ex. Coffee = 100mg/cup, Tea = 50mg/cup  Caffeine is a methylxanthine; xanthine means “yellow” o 1, 3, 7 – trimethylxanthine  combined w/theophylline, theobromine, dymethylxanthine o methylxanthine occurs in over 60 plant species – protective purpose o Increased production of octopamine: excitatory NT leading to over excitation & death (used in pesticides/ not necessarily humans) o Plants containing methylxanthines – coffee, tea, yerba mate, guarana, kola nut, cacao  Yerba – steeping leaves  Guarana – brewing roasted berries like coffee, but twice the caffeine content, nrg drinks  Tea – earliest caffeine containing beverage used for psychostimulating effects o China – 2737 BC o Shen Neng  Chinese emperor  Earliest mentioner of tea  Also credited the discovery of Ephedrine & Marijuana o Became widespread in China and Japan, then Eastern Asia (1500s, stayed for a while), then Europe (England and Russia) – due to the Dutch East India company  Europe 1500s (England & Russia) – so popular they started to trade opium for tea with the Chinese (Opium wars 1800s)  Russia – made tea in Samovars (large urns) o First shipment to Canada in 1716 through Hudson’s Bay Company o Chief species of tea in North America is Camellia Sinensis (native to China/India) o Tim Horton’s Tea  SM 50mg (Black) 20mg (Green  M 60mg (B) 25mg (G)  L 90mg (B) 30mg (G) o Green tea (vs.Black) contains polyphenols that may help prevent heart disease and some forms of cancer (destroyed by black tea) o Contains theophylline – stimulant  Coffee – Ethiopian/Yemenite goatherder noticed his goats in an excited state & tried the berries (600AD), Islamic holy man made drink out of the berries he found – first chewed, then drunk o Sporadic attempts to ban coffee bc they saw it as an intoxicant like alcohol o Coffee houses began to appear around 1550 o Sultan Murad IV (Ottoman Empire)  Closed down all coffee houses in 1633 but were reopened due to protests  Punishment: sewn into leather bag and thrown into river o Bans were shortlived o Muslim world – devotional and social drink o Africa and middle east – started coffee bean roasting o Coffee in Europe  Introduced by the Ottomans  “the wine of Islam”  King Charles Proclomation for the Supression of Coffee Houses 1675  2000 coffee houses in England 1750  Penny Universities: a popular nickname for coffee hosues to reflect the belief that these houses had the intellectual atmosphere of universities as a much less cost (one of the main concerns that gov’ts had was that political dissert was often “brewing at the same time as coffee” o Only Xanthine in coffee is caffeine o Tim Horton’s Coffee  SM 80mg  M 100mg  L 140mg o Starbucks Coffee  SM 180mg  M 260mg  L 330mg o Instant coffee has less caffeine (~60mg)  Cola Drink (pop) o Canadians drink ~ 85 liters a year = 1 can a day o US – world leader in soft drink consumption at 216 liters a year = 3 cans a day o Almost all (95%) of the caffeine in soft drinks is added  Since the kola nut, which is used in the production contains little caffeine  Caffeine that’s added comes from what is decaffeinated out of coffee o Typical can of cola = 40mg of caffeine o Mountain Dew 55mg Pepsi 40mg Coke 35mg 7up 0mg  Energy Drinks o Marketed as creating a strong stimulating effect (high energy and alertness!) o Studies have shown that energy drinks do lead to acute improvements in cognitive performance and mood, BUT that most, if not all, of the effect may be due to caffeine o Red Bull 80mg Jolt 280mg Bawls 70mg Full Throttle 150mg o Guarana is the added stimulant o Typical user = male, white, intramural athlete, part of frat, young o STUDY  Alcohol only = engage in more impulsive behaviours  Alc + NRG drink = MORE engagement in impulsive behaviours o Energy drinks are associated with higher level of alcohol consumption in university students (no causal link – just correlated) o Consumption is higher, the older you are (within young people)  20% students consumed in last 7 days  50% university students consume 1/month  25% users report experiencing some adverse effect (headache, palpitations)  Chocolate – primary source for methylxanthine theobromine (not rich in caffeine) o Extremely weak; similar effects to caffeine, but 10X less potent (1/10) o Made from beans of cacao pods o Cacao trees frow in mexico, Central America, the Carribean, South America, Africa, and Asia o Being used as drink by the Aztecs until taken to Spain where they added sugar, and eventually flavouring to create the chocolate treats we have today o Origin of the association of chocolate and Romance  May have come from the spanish princesses giving it as betrothal gifts the princes  Symbol of wealth since the two main ingredients, cacao and sugar, were very expensive o The theobromine in chocolate can be harmful, even fatal if enough is injested by dogs and horses  Black black gum w/caffeine in it  Caffeine o Isolated from:  Coffee 1820  Tea 1827 o Pure form of caffeine is a white powder, bitter to taste o Mo
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