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Lectures 7-8

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Psychology 2020A/B
Riley Hinson

thLecture 7MonSeptember 30Metabolci toleranceincrease breakdown of alcohol not a big role howeverAcute toleranceMellanby effect more of an effect on rising effect on curve reflects the fact that as soon as alcohol goes in and upsets homeostatic system body naturally reacts to that by trying to adapt to it Certain mechanisms will be activated ascending limbthose adaptive mechanisms have not been engaged but by the time you get to decsneniding limbless of an effect they have already been in play Thermostat example Doesnt do much except change when temperature actually changesIf you could change it to make it smarter it ANTICPATEs a change in temperature that would be a similar example Homeostatic disturbanceIf we have some way to measure a disturbance some drug effect body can take mechanism sthat normally reacts to that only when its brought uponbut now its ALWAYS presentChronic or functional tolerance Type of tolerance we normally think about when someone has become tolerant to the durgChronicover repeated administrations to the drug Shift to right on DRCIts a form of adaption way body has been able to function more or less normally evne though drug can still be in the body Tolerance shown to all effects in animals as well Plane rotarod etc They can show tolerance to tilting planemay require a much more steeper angle to fall off Rotarod fall off very quickly if oyu continue to give same dose of alcoholable to stay betterFingerfinger test can be tolerant to that Area would be smaller Classical conditioningbody mechanism which can make us proactive in response to drug When drug is admisntered you get less and less of effect tolerantThis is one of the TWO main paradigms used Operant conditioningsituation in which what the animal does is important in relationship to what happens ie pressing of the leverdrug administered Animals behaviour operates on the environmentreinforcementClassical conditioningassociated with Ivan Pavlov Russian physiology He discovered this on research with digestion He would prepare his dogs with tubesso that when they saliviated it would come out and they could collect itfor measurement Also did for gastric secretions from stomach secretions Noted a interesting phenomena food in dog mouththey would sliviateyou dont teach them to do that Unconditioned stimulusthe food UCSthe actual salivationUCR This was essentially his study However noted one interesting phenomena In the study for a while dogs would start saliviating before egettign the foodtheyd ANTICIPATE it this is called the CONDITIONED Stimulus if taken to a device for instance Dogs would start to saliviate even when they went to get them These secretions NOT illicited by food it wasnt their It was called psychic secretions He became interested so he gave that up and turned his attention to the study of psychic secretionsclassicalpavlovloanian conditioningStimulus that was in the room or being taken to the cennelCS CSinitially they didnt initiate saliviation for the first time The ability of the stimulu to elicit a reaction that he was measuring was CONDITIONAL on certain things he was conducting in the studyCR was the response CSregularly paired in time and precedes with a food for instance Food UCSunconditionally illicits the UCR You pair them long enough you realize the CS illicts a CR CR is very similar to the UCR Dogs saliviated foodif bell was paired with itdog would salivate to the bell for instance CRUCR looks VERY similar butDifferenceschemical composition with salivia viscosity etc Pavlov had students using drugs with these experimentsScolapaminedrug that affects the cholinergic nervous system it drives up secretions They rang their bell gave animal this drug they knew by itself it dried up secretions not much gastric food produced etc They wanted to know what does the dog do to the bell which has been driven by scoalpamineDog salivated a whole lotsecreted a whole lot of fluid Paraxodical conditioningopposite of what Pavlov found Bell preceeded drying conditions produced increase in secretionsAmount of secretions we produce in body homeostatic mechanisms If you mess it up ie give drug that dries up secretions body tries to overcome that Body has a way to know when secretions are dried up Makes it more difficult to eat foodso body doesnt like thisThis bell came to illict the OPPOSITE of drug effects The animal and the bellwould cancel each other out reviewAfter al ong time you see tolerance To drying effect of scolapmine They thought then maybe classical conditioning plays a role in toleranceCuessignal drug effectcapable of illicting responses OPPOSITE to drug effects If they dothey tend to cancel out drug effect Sinec its a LEARNED response it wont occur the first time We will look at 3 bits of evidence cconditioning in volved with toleranceLots of research shows classical conditioning is a role that palys a role in toleranceToleranceadaptation CS makes animal to recruit messages bring them forward in time so they dont wait until the drug has to come to become reactive they are proactiveShepard Siegel1Situational specificity of tolerancerings bell salivateetcif they dont ring itno conditional response No CR will be seen unless presenting the CS
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