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Monday January 30th Lecture Notes

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Psychology 2020A/B
Riley Hinson

thLecture 6Monday January 30Cholinergic nervous system involved in learning and memory o Nicotine acts in the cholinergic nervous system Capable of improving information processing and memory Enhances performance in tasks requiring concentration over long periods of time Seems to reduce interference from irrelevant stimuli May help alleviate some of the cognitive deficits seen in Alzheimers and even in the nondemented elderlyy Provides some benefits for Alzheimers patientsy Shown to ameliorate some of the learning and memory deficits seen in aged animalsNicotine in Behavioural Pharmacology ParadigmsSelf AdministrationConditional Place Preference o Nicotine generally considered a reliable reinforcer in rats dogs nonhuman primates in Self Administration Paradigm Progressive ratio procedurebreak point for nicotine was approx 500 responses for cocaine it was as high as 3750 responses Extinction burstingsince the animal has been rewarded for this action in the past they vigorously continue to do this in expectation of reward Amount of reinforcement is dosedependento Nicotine has been shown to support a Conditioned Place PreferenceSeveral drugs have been shown to block the acquisition andor expression of both nicotine self administration and conditioned place preference Drug DiscriminationState Dependent Learning o Nicotine serves as a discriminative cue in the Drug Discrimination Paradigm A number of nicotinic agonists generalize to the nicotine cue Some degree of generalization to stimulants that block the reuptake of dopaminey Suggests a role of dopamine in the discriminative cue properties of nicotine Other drugs show little generalization to the nicotine cue o Not a large body of research on State Dependent Learning with nicotineStudies show State Dependent Learning with nicotine in humans but there is less evidence in animals TolerancePhysical Dependence o Inconsistent evidence concerning the development of tolerance to many of the effects of nicotine in humans and animals Some evidence of tolerance to some of the mood effects of nicotine but little evidence of tolerance to performance effects In animals tolerance develops to many of the physiological effects little tolerance to locomotor reinforcing or dopamine releasing effectsLack of evidence of tolerance in nicotine suggests that tolerance plays little role in smoking addictiono Has been suggested that tolerance and physical dependence may reflect a common adaptive mechanismit is expected that the two will be present or absent in concerto There is however substantial evidence of withdrawal symptoms in both animals and humans
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