Chapter 2: an integrative approach to psychopathology
Transference: I am mad at my father and I am projecting this hunger against my therapist
projection: I am hungry therefore I am thinking my therapist is hungry too.
generalization: look the definition
One-dimensional or multi-dimensional models
One dimensional Models
- Could mean a paradigm school or conceptual approach or an emphasis on a specific
- Problems occur when ignoring data from other areas
- Psychopathology is a multiply determined, thus one-dimensional accounts of
psychopathology are incomplete.
- View abnormal behaviour as having many cause
- System of influence that cause and maintain suffering
- Draw upon information from reciprocal relations between biological, psychological,
social and experiential factors:
Interdisciplinary and eclectic
Biological factors (genetics, physiology, neurobiology)
Learning factors (conditioning, modeling)
Genetic contribution to psychopathology
It might be a huge reason to have the disorders.
Gregor Mendel’s work in the 19 century
o Phenotype (characteristics such as blue eyes) vs genotype (genes)
Nature of genes:
o Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the double helix
o 23 pairs of chromosomes (genes are on the chromosomes)
o Development and behaviour is often polygenetic (it’s not only one gene but a
combination of genes that is responsible for the disorders)
o Genetics contribution to psychopathology is less than 50%
o Genetic contribution to intelligence is around 62%
The interactions of genetic and environmental effects
Eric Kandel: learning => activation of dormant genes (not all genes are active, learning
connections make the genes actives
o So learning change the brain, continued brain development (more we use it, more
active is gonna be).
The diathesis-stress model: the variability of you might develop a pressure given a stress from
the environment: o Examples: include blood injury injection phobia and alcoholism. It’s a very serious
phobia. Alcoholism might be induce by the genetics and the environment.
The reciprocal gene-environment model: previous position, a treat leads us to engage in
activity who can cause problem a problem.
o Examples: include depression (based on research by Toronto psychologist Randy
Katz), divorce (bad relationship after bad relationship, how can I get out?) and
Non-genomic inheritance of behaviour (epigenetics): for example child exposed to a trauma
and develop a stress.
o genes are not the whole story, e.g., critical periods
o cross fostering studies of development: mice identical genetically in a different
environment (cross the mothers) the mice adapt differently (in behaviour).
Neuroscience and the divisions of the brain
forebrain (cerebral cortex) all inside the skill, contains executive functioning, logic:
o location of most sensory, emotional, and cognitive processing.
o Two specialized hemispheres (left and right) joined by the corpus callosum, so the
right brain can communicate to the left brain (cross over).
o Right: spatial (if a lesion I lose this function I’ll not be able to read the left part of a
clock) / left: verbal, cognitive.
Neuroscience and the brain structure
Lobes of cerebral cortex:
o Frontal: thinking and reasoning abilities, memory (in schizophrenia, they have more
active frontal lobe than healthy people).
o Parietal: touch recognition
o Occipital: integrates visual input
o Temporal: recognition of sights and sounds and long-term memory storage (if a
lesion, no possibility to create new memories, patient H.M, epilepsy, removed
hippocampus, and destroy his ability to create new memory).
Limbic system: all the limbic system part deals with emotion and processing and composed
by: hippocampus, cingulate gyrus (emotional), septum (emotional) and amygdala (if destroy
amygdala, no more fears).
Basal ganglia: including caudate nucleus, rapid movements.
Precentral gyrus: primary motor cortex
Post central: primary somatosensory cortex
Neuroscience contributions to psychopathology:
The role of the nervous system in disease and behaviour
The central nervous system (CNS): brain plus spinal cord
The peripheral nervous system (PNS): all the nerves of our body:
o Somatic and autonomic branches (2 parts of the peripheral). Soma= body.
Neuroscience: peripheral nervous and endocrine systems:
Somatic branch of PNS:
o Controls voluntary