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chap 2

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Psychology 2030A/B
David Vollick

Chapter 2: an integrative approach to psychopathology Transference: I am mad at my father and I am projecting this hunger against my therapist projection: I am hungry therefore I am thinking my therapist is hungry too. generalization: look the definition One-dimensional or multi-dimensional models  One dimensional Models - Could mean a paradigm school or conceptual approach or an emphasis on a specific cause - Problems occur when ignoring data from other areas - Psychopathology is a multiply determined, thus one-dimensional accounts of psychopathology are incomplete.  Multidimensional models - View abnormal behaviour as having many cause - System of influence that cause and maintain suffering - Draw upon information from reciprocal relations between biological, psychological, social and experiential factors:  Interdisciplinary and eclectic  Biological factors (genetics, physiology, neurobiology)  Learning factors (conditioning, modeling)  Emotional factors  Cognitive factors  Social factors  Cultural factors Genetic contribution to psychopathology It might be a huge reason to have the disorders.  Gregor Mendel’s work in the 19 century o Phenotype (characteristics such as blue eyes) vs genotype (genes)  Nature of genes: o Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the double helix o 23 pairs of chromosomes (genes are on the chromosomes) o Development and behaviour is often polygenetic (it’s not only one gene but a combination of genes that is responsible for the disorders) o Genetics contribution to psychopathology is less than 50% o Genetic contribution to intelligence is around 62% The interactions of genetic and environmental effects  Eric Kandel: learning => activation of dormant genes (not all genes are active, learning connections make the genes actives o So learning change the brain, continued brain development (more we use it, more active is gonna be).  The diathesis-stress model: the variability of you might develop a pressure given a stress from the environment: o Examples: include blood injury injection phobia and alcoholism. It’s a very serious phobia. Alcoholism might be induce by the genetics and the environment.  The reciprocal gene-environment model: previous position, a treat leads us to engage in activity who can cause problem a problem. o Examples: include depression (based on research by Toronto psychologist Randy Katz), divorce (bad relationship after bad relationship, how can I get out?) and impulsivity  Non-genomic inheritance of behaviour (epigenetics): for example child exposed to a trauma and develop a stress. o genes are not the whole story, e.g., critical periods o cross fostering studies of development: mice identical genetically in a different environment (cross the mothers) the mice adapt differently (in behaviour). Neuroscience and the divisions of the brain  forebrain (cerebral cortex) all inside the skill, contains executive functioning, logic: o location of most sensory, emotional, and cognitive processing. o Two specialized hemispheres (left and right) joined by the corpus callosum, so the right brain can communicate to the left brain (cross over). o Right: spatial (if a lesion I lose this function I’ll not be able to read the left part of a clock) / left: verbal, cognitive. Neuroscience and the brain structure  Lobes of cerebral cortex: o Frontal: thinking and reasoning abilities, memory (in schizophrenia, they have more active frontal lobe than healthy people). o Parietal: touch recognition o Occipital: integrates visual input o Temporal: recognition of sights and sounds and long-term memory storage (if a lesion, no possibility to create new memories, patient H.M, epilepsy, removed hippocampus, and destroy his ability to create new memory).  Limbic system: all the limbic system part deals with emotion and processing and composed by: hippocampus, cingulate gyrus (emotional), septum (emotional) and amygdala (if destroy amygdala, no more fears).  Basal ganglia: including caudate nucleus, rapid movements.  Precentral gyrus: primary motor cortex  Post central: primary somatosensory cortex Neuroscience contributions to psychopathology:  The role of the nervous system in disease and behaviour  The central nervous system (CNS): brain plus spinal cord  The peripheral nervous system (PNS): all the nerves of our body: o Somatic and autonomic branches (2 parts of the peripheral). Soma= body. Neuroscience: peripheral nervous and endocrine systems:  Somatic branch of PNS: o Controls voluntary
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