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2030- Leacture 2.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2030A/B
David Vollick

1/14/2013 3:52:00 PM  Genetic Contributions to Psychopathology  Gregor Mendel’s work in the 19 century o Phenotype as opposed to genotype  You are born with a genetic makeup that may make you high risk  Nature of Genes o Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)- the double helix o 23 pairs of chromosomes o Development and behavior is often polygenetic-there are some disorders that we know the exact genes effected o Genetic contribution to physiopathology is less than 50%- often social effects and history as well o Genetic contribution to intelligence is around 62%  The interaction of genetic and environmental effects  Epigenetic- genes being mutated- mutation within the gene- chemical binding of genes- methylation, acetylating passed on the next generation  Eric Kandel- Learning-> activation of dormant genes, jumping genes (making genes active) o Continued brain development-learning changes the brain- more neuron connections0 the more you use it, the more it works and changes  The Diathesis-Stress Model- the vulnerability that you might develop depression given the amount of stress in the environment o Examples include blood-injury-injection phobia and alcoholism  Reciprocal Gene-Environment Model o We have genetic make up that leads to a predisposition of trains that lead us to engage in activities that could cause problems o Examples include depression (based on research by Toronto psychologist Randy Katz), Divorce, and impulsivity  Non-genomic Inheritance of Behavior (Epigenetic) o PTSD-also involves this epigenetic phenomenon o Genes are not the whole story- e.g., critical periods (birth -5 y.o.) the later in life a trauma effects you the better off you will be because you have the basic strengths to overcome it on your own o Cross fostering studies of development- identical mice with identical environments but give them to different parents- adapt a learned behavior  Neuroscience and the divisions of the brain  Forebrain (Cerebral Cortex) o The top part of the brain, contains executive function, logic and planning abilities o Location of most sensory, emotional and cognitive processing o Two specialized hemispheres (left and the right) joined by the corpus callosum o Epilepsy o Right- spatial (maps, faces); Left-Verbal, cognitive  Neuroscience and the brain structure  Lobes of cerebral cortex o Frontal- thinking and reasoning abilities, memory- schizophrenic can have damages frontal o Parietal- touch recognition o Occipital- integrated visual input o Temporal- recognition of sights and sounds and long-term memory storage  Limbic System- Hippocampus, cingulated gyrus, septum, and amygdala  Basal ganglia (including caudate nucleus)  Neuroscience contributions to psychopathology  The role of the nervous system in disease and behavior  The Central Nervous System (CNS) o Contains brain and spinal cord  The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) o All other nerves, coming out of spinal cord, somatic (bond) and autonomic branches o Somatic  Controls voluntary muscles and movement o Autonomic  Sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the AND (fight or flight). Parasympathetic calms and sympathetic excites  Regulates cardiovascular system and body temperature  Also regulates the endocrine system and aids in digestion and hormone production  The Endocrine System o Hormones (epinephrine [hyper, opens blood vessels], thyroxin [thyroid hormone], sex hormones)  The hypothalamic- pituitary- adrenalcortical axis (HYPAC axis) o Integration of endocrine and nervous system function  Neuroscience: functions of main types of neurotransmitters  Neurotransmitters: Chemical messengers in the brain-used to communicate with neighboring cells  Functions of Neurotransmitters o Agonist (increases activity of neurotransmitter by mimicking) and antagonist (decreases) o Most drugs are either agonist or antagonist  Main types and functions of neurotransmitters o Serotonin (5HT)- moods- SSRI’s (antidepressants) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors- increase amount of serotonin  Low serotonin- less inhibition, suicide, overeating, aggression o Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)- inhibitory  Reduces anxiety- benzodiazepines (minor tranquilizers) o Norepinephrine- stimulates; beta blockers for hypertension, regulate heart rate o Dopamine- exploratory and pleasure-seeking  Antipsychotics- parkinsonism (not enough dopamine), schizophrenia has too much dopamine  Manipulation serotonin in the brain- at the end of the axon and in the synaptic gap. Electrical current starts the transfer. Serotonin prevents the reuptake  Implications for psychopathology  Relations between brain and abnormal behavior o E.g., serotonin; and OCD, dyslexia (also brain hemispheres and schizophrenia  Experience can change brain structure and function  Therapy, as well as medication, can change brain structure and function, e.g., OCD  Behavioral and cognitive science  Conditioning and cognitive learning o Classical and operant learning o Learned helplessness o Modeling and vicarious learning- Bandura o Prepared learning- evolutionary concept that we are prepared to learn something because is helped our ancestors to survive o Brain interaction with psychosocial factors  Cognitive science and the unconscious o Implicit memory, blind sight, stroop paradigm  Cognitive-behavioral therapy o Beck, Ellis (cognitive therapy), Meichenmaum (self-
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