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Lecture 3

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Western University
Psychology 2030A/B
David Vollick

 Neuroimaging and Brain Structure  Neuroimaging: pictures of the brain o Allows for a window on brain structure and function; structure as in size and function as in activity  Imaging brain structure o Computerized axial tomography (CAT or CT scan)  CAT- x-rays of the brain; pictures in slices o Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)  Better resolution than CAT scan  Operates via strong magnetic field around head o Utility: location tumors, injuries, structural or anatomical abnormalities o Neuropsychological- location: neuroimaging- structure and functioning  Imaging Brain Function o Positron emission tomography (PET)- injection of radioactive isotopes. They react with oxygen, blood, and glucose in the brain o Functional MRI (fMRI) vs. MRI- a view of brief changes in brain activity  E.g. PTSDs (numbing) have different brain activity than those hyper-vigilant (hyper-arousal)  Advantages and limitations o Provide detailed information regarding brain function o Procedures are expensive, lack of adequate norms o Procedures have limited clinical utility  Psychophysiological Assessment  Psychophysiological assessment o More generally assess brain structure, function, and activity of the nervous system; changes in the nervous system reflecting emotional of psychological events  Domains o Electroencephalogram (EEG)- brain wave activity o Heart rate and respiration o Electrodermal response and levels- sweat gland activity o Electromyography (EMG)- muscle tension  Routine Psychophysiological assessment o Disorders involving strong emotional component; mostly involuntary o Examples include PTSD, and sexual dysfunctions (may not be aware of their pattern)  Diagnosing and Classifying Psychological Disorders  Etiology, reliable, treatment, course, prognosis  The forms of classification systems o Classical categorical approach- strict categories; you are or you aren’t o Dimensional approach- along a dimension, on a continuum; moderate or severe o Prototypical approach- combines classical and dimensional views  DSM-IV TR  Two widely used classification systems o International classification of disease and health related problems (ICD-10); World health organization; most people use DMS because it tends to be more distinct o Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM IV TR); the American psychiatric association  Purpose of the DSM system o Aid communication, evaluate prognosis looks at how well patient is doing; axis tells you change in patient), need for treatment (how to plan treatment), and treatment planning; good assessment material that is standardized o To apply what you’ve learned from similar clients o Basic Characteristics  Five axes- full clinical story (person and environment)  Clear inclusion and exclusion criteria, + duration  Disorders are categorized under broad headings; may or may not be a good thing  Prototypic approach to classification; empirically based- research based and valid  The 5 Axes of DSM IV TR o Axis I- most major disorders o Axis II- Stable enduring problems (e.g. personality disorders, mental retardation) o Axis III- medical conditions related to abnormal behavior (Parkinson’s when axis 1 has schizophrenia- receive antipsychotics reducing dopamine); only note what is related to axis 1 o Axis IV- psychological problems affecting functioning and treatment; recent death or environment change o Axis V- clinical rating of global adaptive functioning; 1/0=poor; 100=excellent Chapter 4- Research Methods  Science and Abnormal Behavior  Nature of Science o Way of knowing the world unlike normal everyday ways of knowing o Science values empiricism, objectivity and replicability o Science demands rigorous standards of proof; the more wild the claim the more rigorous the proof” o Science is a means for testing hypotheses and theoretical claims  Questions driving a science of psychopathology o What problems cause distress and impair functioning? What kinds of problems cause people to be anxious? o Why do people behave in unusual ways? o How can we help people behave in more adaptive ways? (It all about prevention)  Basic components of Research  Start with a hypothesis or educated guess formulated so that they are testable; i.e. look at structure and function  Research design o A method to test hypothesis o Independent variable-causes or influences behavior; thing being manipulated i.e. number of glasses of scotch o Dependent variable- the behavior influences by the independent variable I.e. how well they can walk o Null hypothesis rejected if there is a significant relationship between groups-no change o Standardization: comparing results to an average*  Considerations in research design  Balancing internal vs. external validity o Interna
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