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Lecture 3

Psych 2030 Lecture 3.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2030A/B
David Vollick

Psych 2030 Lecture 3 Exam 7-9 80 questions Majority of questions are from lecture notes, several from the textbook  Neuroimaging and brain structure o Neuroimaging: pictures of the brain  Allows for a window on brain structure and function o Imaging brain structure  Computerized axial tomography (CAT or CT scan)  CAT—X-rays of brain; pictures in slices  Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)  Better resolution than CAT scan  Nothing to do with x-rays (magnetic field)  Operates via strong magnetic field around head  X-rays are ionized, destroys tissues o Utility: locating tumors, injuries, structural or anatomical abnormalities o Neuropsychological—location: neuroimaging—structure and functioning (halstead reitan test) IMPORTANT  Neuroimaging and brain structure—Cont’d o Imaging Brain Function  Positron emission tomography (PET)—injection of radioactive isotopes. They react with oxygen, blood, and glucose in the brain  Functional MRI (fMRI) vs. MRI—a view of brief changes in brain activity (ask to do something to trigger different parts of the brain)  Ex. PTSDs (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)(numbing) have different brain activity than those (hyperarousal)— reactive? o Advantages and limitations  Provide detailed information regarding brain function  Procedures are expensive, lack adequate norms  Procedures have limited clinical utility  Psychophysiological Assessment o Psychophysiological assessment  More generally assess brain structure, function, and activity of the nervous system (much more emotional) o Psychophysiological assessment domains  Electroencephalogram (EEG)—Brain wave activity  Heart rate and respiration  Electrodermal response and levels—sweat gland activity  Electromyography (EMG)—Muscle tension o Routine Psychophysiological Assessment  Disorders involving a strong emotional component  Ex. PTSD and sexual dysfunctions (may not be aware of their pattern)  Diagnosing and Classifying Psychological Disorder o Etiology, reliable, treatment, course, prognosis o The forms of classification systems  Classical categorical approach—strict categories (ex. Depressed or not, psychotic or not)  Dimensional approach—along a dimension (mild, moderate, or severely depressed)  Prototypical approach—combines classical and dimensional views  DSM-III (new one is DSM-IVTR) o Two widely used classification systems  International classification of diseases and Health Related Problems (ICD-10); World Health Organization  Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV- TR); The American Psychiatric Association o Purposes of the DSM system  Aid communication, evaluate prognosis, need for treatment, and treatment planning  To apply what you’ve learned from similar clients  The DSM-IV o Basic Characteristics  Five axes—full clinical story (person and environment)  Clear inclusion and exclusion criteria, plus duration  Disorders are categorized under broad headings  Prototypic approach to classification; empirically based (researched, collective data) o The Five DSM-IV Axes  Axis I—Most major disorders  Axis II—stable, enduring problems (ex. Personality disorders, mental retardation)  Axis III—medical conditions related to abnormal behavior  Axis IV—psychosocial problems affecting functioning or treatment  Axis V—clinician rating of global adaptive functioning) 1=poor; 100=excellent Chapter 4: Research Methods  Science and abnormal behavior o Nature of science  Way of knowing the world unlike normal everyday ways of knowing  Science values empiricism, objectivity, and replicability  Science demands rigorous standards of proof  Science is a means for testing hypotheses and theoretical claims o Questions driving a science of psychopathology  What problems cause distress or impair functioning  Why do people behave in unusual ways?  How can we help people behave in more adaptive ways?  Basic components of research o Starts with a hypothesis or “educated guess” formulated so that they are testable o Research design  A method to test hypotheses  Independent variable—causes or influences behavior  Dependent variable—the behavior influenced by the independent variable  Null Hypothesis rejected if there is a significant relationship between groups  Considerations in research design o Balancing internal vs. external validity  Internal validity—confidence that effects are due t
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