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Lecture

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2030A/B
Professor
David Vollick
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter  1:  Abnormal  Behaviour  in  Historical  Context  (1-­‐29)     Normal  Behaviour   • Social  Norms  that  we  all  behave  within   • Behaviour  that  doesn’t  impact  our  daily  function  (function  autonomously)   • What  the  majority  does   • Perceive  reality  –  what  most  people  perceive  as  being  real   • We  have  regulated  moods     • Non-­‐violent  in  their  relationships  –  family  relationships  or  friendships   • Not  severely  stressed   • Don’t  have  to  have  all  these  to  be  normal  but  should  have  most     Misconceptions  about  Abnormal  Behaviour   • Bizarre  –  not  all  mentally  ill  people  are  bizarre   • Different  in  kind  –  they  are  not  a  separate  category,  most  of  us  experience   some  of  the  symptoms  mentally  ill  people  do   • Former  patients  are  unstable  and  dangerous  –  not  all  former  patients  are   dangerous,  a  lot  of  people  go  on  to  gets  jobs  and  be  okay   • Ashamed  –  they  should  not  be  ashamed  of  themselves   • One’s  susceptibility  –  you  are  not  susceptible  to  mental  illnesses  because  you   are  around  other  mentally  ill  people   • Weak  in  character   • Mental  illness  is  a  hopeless  situation  –  may  not  always  have  the  mental   illness  or  at  least  not  to  the  extreme     Toward  a  Definition  of  Abnormal  Behaviour   • Psychological  Dysfunction   -­‐ Breakdown  in  cognitive,  emotional  or  behavioural  functioning  (can’t  hold   on  to  relationships  or  jobs)   • Distress  or  impairment   -­‐ Difficulty  performing  appropriate  and  expected  roles   -­‐ Impairment  is  set  in  the  context  of  a  person’s  background   • Atypical  or  unexpected  cultural  response     -­‐ Reaction  is  outside  cultural  norms   -­‐ Must  understand  what  that  cultures  norms  are     Abnormal  Behaviour  Defined   • Psychological  disorder  and  psychological  abnormality  are  used   interchangeably   • Mental  illness  is  a  less  preferred  term   • Psychopathology  is  a  scientific  study  of  psychological  disorders     The  Diagnostic  and  Statistical  Manual  (DSM-­‐IV)   • Widely  accepted  system  for  classifying  psychological  problems  and   disorders   • DSM  contains  diagnostic  criteria  for  behaviours  that:   -­‐ Fit  a  pattern   -­‐ Cause  dysfunction  or  subjective  distress   -­‐ Are  present  for  a  specified  duration   -­‐ And  for  behaviours  that  are  not  otherwise  explainable   • DSM  is  used  to  diagnosis  (or  not)  an  individual  with  a  psychological   disorder     Approaches  to  the  Scientific  Study  of  Psychological  Disorders   • Mental  health  professionals   -­‐ The  Ph.D.s:  Clinical  and  counseling  psychologists   -­‐ The  Psy.D.s:  Clinical  and  counseling  “Doctors  of  Psychology”  (No                  Psy.D.  programs  currently  exist  in  Canada   -­‐ In  Canada,  regulation  of  the  profession  is  under  jurisdiction  of  the                provinces  and  territories   -­‐ M.D’s:  Psychiatrists   -­‐ M.S.W.’s:  psychiatric  and  non-­‐psychiatric  social  workers   -­‐ MN/MSN’s:  psychiatric  nurses       The  Scientist-­‐Practitioner   • Producers  of  research  –  do  the  research   • Consumers  of  research  –  have  to  keep  up  on  the  research   • Evaluators  of  their  work  using  empirical  methods     Categories   • Fig  1.3  in  text     Clinical  Description   • Begins  with  the  presenting  problem     • Description  aims  to   -­‐ Distinguish  clinically  significant  dysfunction  from  common  human                experience   • Describe  prevalence  and  incidence  of  disorders   • Describe  onset  of  disorders   -­‐ Acute  vs.  insidious  onset  (acute  is  “happens  all  of  a  sudden”)   • Describe  course  of  disorders   -­‐ Episodic,  time-­‐limited,  or  chronic  course   • Prognosis  –  Good  vs.  guarded     Causation,  Treatment,  and  Outcomes   • What  factors  contribute  to  the  development  of  psychopathology?  =  Study   of  etiology   • How  can  we  best  improve  the  lives  of  people  suffering  from  psychology?   =  Study  of  treatment  development   • Includes  pharmacologic,  psychosocial,  and/or  combined  treatment   • Have  we  alleviated  psychological  suffering  –  Has  is  worked?,  Have  we   really  helped  the  individual?   • Alleviate  suffering  and  allow  them  to  function   • Study  of  treatment  outcome       The  Past:  Historical  Conceptions  of  Abnormal  Behaviour   • Major  psychological  disorders  have  existed   -­‐ In  all  cultures   -­‐ Across  all  time  periods   • The  causes  and  treatment  of  abnormal  behaviour  varied  widely   -­‐ Across  cultures   -­‐ Across  time  periods   • Three  dominant  traditions  include:   -­‐  Supernatural,  Biological  (from  Greece  –  the  idea  of  separate                mind/body),  and  Psychological   • Deviant  behaviour:  believed  to  be  caused  by:   -­‐ Demonic  possession,  witchcraft,  sorcery   -­‐ Mass  hysteria  (St.  Vitus’  dance  or  Tartanism)   -­‐ Movement  of  the  Moon  and  Stars    -­‐  Paracelsus  and  lunacy   • Both  “Outer  Force”  views  were  popular  during  the  Middle  Ages   • Few  believed  that  abnormality  was  an  illness  on  par  with  physical  disease   • Treatments  included  exorcism,  torture,  beatings,  and  crude  surgeries   • Hippocrates’:  Abnormal  behaviour  as  a  physical  disease   • Hysteria  –  for  woman  this  was  “The  Wandering  Uterus”  for  which  the                  cure  was  marriage  and  having  children   • Galen  extends  Hippocrates  work   • Humoral  theory  of  mental  illness  –  we  have  four  humors  in  the  body                and  when  they  were  out  of  order  people  acted  bizarrely     • Treatments  remained  crude   -­‐  Heat,  moisture,  cold,  bloodletting,  induced  vomiting   • Galenic-­‐Hippocratic  tradition   • Foreshadowed  modern  views  linking  abnormality  with  brain  chemical                imbalances     The  Nineteenth  Century   • General  Paresis  (syphilis)     • Associated  with  several  unusual  psychological  and  behavioural                symptoms   • Pasteur  discovered  the  cause  –  a  bacterial  microorganism   • Led  to  penicillin  as  a  successful  treatment   • Bolstered  the  view  that  mental  illness  =  physical  illness  and  should  be   treated  as  such   • John  Grey  –  due  to  brain  pathology  =  incurable   • Mental  illness  =  physical  illness     The  Development  of  Biological  Treatments   • Kraeplin  –  disorders  due  to  brain  disorder  
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