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Lecture 2

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Psychology 2030A/B
David Vollick

Chapter  2:  An  Integrative  Approach  to  Psychopathology  (pp.  30-­‐67)     One-­‐Dimensional  or  Multidimensional  Models  (pp.  31-­‐33)   • One-­‐Dimensional  Models   -­‐ Could  mean  a  paradigm,  school,  or  conceptual  approach  or  an  emphasis   on  a  specific  cause   -­‐ Problems  occur  when  ignoring  data  from  other  areas   -­‐ Psychopathology  is  multiply  determined,  thus  one-­‐dimensional  accounts   of  psychopathology  are  incomplete   • Multidimensional  Models   -­‐ View  abnormal  behaviour  as  having  many  causes   -­‐ “System”  of  influences  that  cause  and  maintain  suffering   -­‐ Draw  upon  information  from  reciprocal  relations  between  biological,   psychological,  social  and  experiential  factors   -­‐  interdisciplinary  and  eclectic     Multidimensional  Models  of  Abnormal  Behaviour  (p.  29-­‐31)   • Biological  factors  (genetics,  physiology,  neurobiology)   • Learning  factors  (conditioning,  modeling)   • Emotional  factors   • Cognitive  factors  –  the  way  we  think   • Social  factors   • Cultural  factors     Genetics  Contributions  to  Psychopathology  (pp.  34-­‐35)   • Gregor  Mendel’s  work  in  the  19  century   -­‐ Phenotype  vs.  Genotype   • Nature  of  Genes   -­‐ Deoxyribonucleic  Acid  (DNA)  –  the  double  helix   -­‐ 23  pair  of  chromosomes   -­‐ Development  and  behaviour  is  often  polygenetic  (not  one  gene)   -­‐ Genetic  contribution  to  psychopathology  less  than  50%   -­‐ Genetic  contribution  to  intelligence  around  62%     The  Interaction  of  Genetic  and  Environmental  Effects  (pp.  36-­‐39)   • Eric  Kandel     -­‐ Learning    activation  of  dormant  genes   -­‐ Continued  brain  development   • The  Diathesis-­‐Stress  Model   -­‐ Examples  include  blood-­‐injury-­‐injection  phobia  and  alcoholism   • Reciprocal  Gene-­‐Environmental  Model   -­‐ Genetic  predisposition  to  go  into  situations  that  may  not  be  good  for  you   -­‐ Examples  include  depression  (based  on  research  done  by  Randy  Katz),   divorce,  and  impulsivity   -­‐ Kerry  Jang  et  al.  examined  the  influence  of  genes  on  exposure  to  types  of   traumatic  events   -­‐ Depending  on  the  trauma  you  experience,  the  genes  will  become  more   activated   • Non-­‐Genomic  Inheritance  of  Behaviour   -­‐ Genes  are  not  the  whole  story  –  eg.  Critical  periods  in  development   -­‐ Cross  fostering  studies  of  development     Neuroscience  and  the  Divisions  of  the  Brain  (pp.  42-­‐44)   • Forebrain  (Cerebral  Cortex)   -­‐ Location  of  most  sensory,  emotional,  and  cognitive  processing   -­‐ Two  specialized  hemispheres  (left  and  right)  joined  by  the  corpus   callosum   -­‐ Right  –  spatial;  Left  –  verbal,  cognitive   • Lobes  of  Cerebral  Cortex   -­‐ Frontal  –  thinking  and  reasoning  abilities,  memory   -­‐ Parietal  –  touch  and  recognition   -­‐ Occipital  –  integrates  visual  input   -­‐ Temporal  –  recognition  of  sights  and  sounds  and  LTM  storage   • Limbic  system  –  hippocampus,  cinulate  gyrus,  septum,  and  amygdala   • Basal  ganglia  (including  caudate  nucleus)     Neuroscience  and  the  Brain  Structure  (pp.43)   • Figure  2.6     Neuroscience  Contributions  to  Psychopathology  (pp.  39-­‐42)   • The  role  of  the  nervous  system  in  disease  and  behaviour   • The  Central  Nervous  System  (CNS)   -­‐ Brain  and  spinal  cord   • The  Peripheral  Nervous  System  (PNS)   -­‐ Somatic  and  autonomic  branches     Neuroscience:  Peripheral  Nervous  and  Endocrine  Systems  (pp.  44)   • Somatic  Branch  of  PNS   -­‐ Control  voluntary  muscles  and  movement   • Automatic  Branch  of  PNS   -­‐ Sympathetic  and  parasympathetic  branches  of  the  ANS   -­‐ Regulates  cardiovascular  system  and  body  temperature   -­‐ Also  regulates  the  endocrine  system  and  aids  in  digestion   • The  Endocrine  System   -­‐ Hormones  (epinephrine,  thyroxin,  sex  hormones)   • The  Hypothalamic-­‐Pituitary-­‐Adrenalcortical  Axis  (HYPAC  axis)   -­‐ Integration  of  endocrine  and  nervous  system  function     Neuroscience:  Function  of  Main  Types  of  Neurotransmitters  (pp.  45-­‐49)   • Neurotransmitters  are  chemical  messengers   • Functions  of  Neurotransmitters   -­‐ Agonists  (increase  activity  of  a  neurotransmitter),  antagonists  (block   activity  of  a  neurotransmitter),  and  inverse  agonists  (increase  the  activity   by  competing  with  other  biochemical  that  deactivate  it)   -­‐ Most  drugs  are  either  agonists  or  antagonistic   • Main  Types  and  Functions  of  Neurotransmitters   -­‐ Serotonin  (5HT)  –  moods  –  SSRIs  (selective  serotonin  reuptake   inhibitors)   -­‐      low  serotonin    less  inhibition,  suicide,  overeating,  aggression   -­‐ Gamma  aminobutyric  Acid  (GABA)  –  inhibitory   -­‐      reduces  anxiety  -­‐  benzodiazepines   -­‐ Norepinephrine  stimulates;  beta  blockers  for  hypertension,  regulate   heart  beat     -­‐ Dopamine  –  exploratory  and  pleasure-­‐seeking   -­‐      antipsychotics  -­‐  parkinsonism     Major  Dopamine  Pathways   • Figure  2.13     Manipulating  Serotonin  In  The  Brain  (pp.48)   • Figure  2.11     Major  Norepinephrine  Pathways   • Figure  2.12     Implications  for  Psychopathology  (pp.49-­‐52)   • Relations  between  brain  and  abnormal  behaviour   -­‐ Eg.  Serotonin;  and  OCD.  Dyslexia,  and  schizophrenia  (too  much)   • Experience  can  change  brain  structure  and  function  (ex.  substance   addictions)   • Therapy  as  well  as  medication  can  change  brain  structure  and  functioning   (eg.  OCD)     Behaviour  and  Cognitive  Science  (pp.  53-­‐57)   • Conditioning  and  Cognitive  Processes   -­‐ Classical  and  operant  learning  -­‐  through  conditioning  we  can  learn  to  be   afraid  of  different  people   -­‐ Learned  helplessness  –  rats  learned  to  just  give  up  (one  of  the  first   theories  of  depression)   -­‐ Modeling  and  vicarious  learning  –  Bandura   -­‐ Prepared  learning  –  some  things  we  are  more  prepared  to  learn  than   others  (fear  of  snacks  vs.  flowers)   • Cognitive  Science  and  the  Unconscious   -­‐ Implicit  memory,  blind  sight,  Stroop  paradigm   • Cognitive-­‐Behavioural  Therapy   -­‐  Beck,  Ellis  (cognitive  therapy),  Meichencaum  (self-­‐instructional  training)     The  Role  of  Emotion  in  Psychopathology  (pp  58-­‐60)   • The  Nature  of  Emotion   -­‐ Fear  –  eg.  Fight  or  Flight   -­‐ Different  from  affect  or  mood   • Components  of  Emotion   -­‐ Behaviour,  physiology,  and  cognition  (fear  incorporates  al  of  these)   • Harmful  Side  of  Emotional  Dysregulation   -­‐ Anger,  hostility  (decreased  pumping  action  due  to  inflammation  from   overactive  immune  system),  emotional  suppression,  psychopathology   and  illness     Cultural,  Social,  and  Interpersonal  Factors  (pp.  60-­‐64)   • Cultural  Factors   -­‐ Influence  the  form  and  expression  of  normal  and  abnormal  behaviour   • Gender  Effects   -­‐ Exerts  a  effect  on  psychopathology   • Social  Relationships   -­‐ Frequency  and  quality  negatively  related  to  mortality,  disease  and   psychopathology     Life-­‐Span  and  Developmental  Influences  Over  Psychopathology  (pp.  64-­‐66)   • Life-­‐Span  Developmental  Perspective   -­‐ Developmental  changes  (Kolb  et  al.,  2003)   -­‐      Environment  had  different  effects  on  brains,  depending  on              developmental  stage   • Optimistic  seniors  lived  longer   • The  Principles  of  Equifinality   -­‐ Several  paths  to  a  given  outcome   -­‐ Paths  may  operate  differently  at  different  developmental  stages     Chapter  3:  Clinical  Assessment  and  Diagnosis  (pp.  69-­‐100)     Assessing  Psychological  Disorders  (pp.  70)   • Clinical  Assessment   -­‐ Systematic  evaluation  and  measurement   -­‐  Psychological   -­‐  Biological   -­‐  Social   • Diagnosis   -­‐ Degree  of  fit  between  symptoms  and  diagnostic  criteria   • Purposes  of  Clinical  Assessment   -­‐ To  unders
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