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Lecture 3

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2030A/B
Professor
David Vollick
Semester
Winter

Description
Abnormal  Psychology  Chapter  4:  Research  Methods  (pp.  100-­‐124)     Science  and  Abnormal  Behaviour  (pp.  102)   • Nature  of  Science   o Way  of  knowing  the  world  unlike  normal  everyday  ways  of  knowing   o Science  values  empiricisms,  objectivity,  and  replicability   o Science  demands  rigorous  standards  of  proof   o Skeptical  and  critical   o Science  is  a  means  for  testing  hypothesis  and  theoretical  claims   • Questions  Driving  A  Science  of  Psychopathology   o What  problems  cause  distress  or  impair  functioning?   o Why  do  people  behave  in  unusual  ways?   o How  can  we  help  people  behave  in  more  adaptive  ways?     Basic  Components  of  Research  (pp.102-­‐103)   • Starts  with  a  hypothesis  or  “educated  guess”  formulated  so  that  they  are   testable   • Research  Design     o A  method  to  test  hypothesis     o Independent  variable  -­‐  causes  or  influences  behaviour   o Dependent  variable  –  the  behaviour  influenced  by  the  IV   o Null  hypothesis  rejected  if  no  significant  relationship  between  groups     Considerations  in  Research  Design  (pp  103-­‐105)   • Balancing  internal  vs.  external  validity   o Internal  validity  –  confidence  that  effects  are  due  to  the  IV   o External  validity    -­‐  extent  to  which  the  findings  are  generalizable   • Ways  to  increase  internal  validity  by  minimizing  confounds   o Confounds  are  contaminating  factors  that  might  skew  the  results     o Use  of  control  groups,  random  assignment   o Control  groups  are  a  group  that  have  no  manipulation   o Use  of  analogue  models  –  try  to  re-­‐create  aspects  of  the  real  world  in   the  lab     Statistical  methods  and  Clinical  Meaningfulness  (p.105-­‐106)   • Statistical  Methods   o Protect  against  biases  in  evaluating  data   • Statistical  vs.  Clinical  Significance   o Statistical  significance  –  the  results  are  beyond  chance   o Clinical  significance  –  the  results  are  clinically  meaningful   • Balancing  Statistical  vs.  Clinical  Significance   o Evaluate  effect  size     o Evaluate  social  validity   • Generalizability  and  the  Patient  Uniformity  Myth  –  that  everybody  in  a  group   is  the  same     Studying  Individual  Cases:  Case  Study  Method  (pp.  106-­‐107)   • Nature  of  the  Case  Study   o Extensive  observation  and  detailed  description  of  a  client  or  disorder   • Limitations  of  the  Case  Study   o Internal  validity  is  typically  weak    Lacks  scientific  rigor  and  suitable  control    Often  entails  numerous  confounds     Research  by  Correlation  (pp.  107-­‐109)   • The  Nature  of  Correlation   o Statistical  relation  between  two  or  more  variables   o No  IV  is  manipulated   o Does  not  imply  causation     • Nature  of  Correlation  and  Strength  of  Association   o Negative  vs.  positive  correlation   o Range  from  -­‐1.0  to  0  to  +1.0   • Epidemiological  Research:  An  example  of  correlational  method   o Study  incidence,  prevalence,  and  course  of  disorders    Examples  include  AIDS,  PTSD     Research  by  Experiment  (pp.  108-­‐111)   • Nature
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