Class Notes (810,483)
Canada (494,134)
Psychology (6,045)
Lecture 9

2030- Lecture 9.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 2030A/B
David Vollick

Chapter 12: Personality Disorders  Personality Disorders:  Personality o An enduring set of characteristic one displays; enduring, difficult to change; relatively stable predispositions; ways you relate and think about the world  Five Factor Model of Personality o Agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience  Cross-Cultural Studies- these 5 dimension are universal  Personality Disorders o Predispositions are inflexible and maladaptive, causing distress and/or impairment o Coded on axis II of DSM-IV-TR – interferes with treatment in axis I disorders  Categorical vs. Dimensional Views of Personality Disorder  Prevalence of Personality Disorders: o About .5-2.5% of the general population; arguable more  Origins and Course of Personality Disorder o Begin in childhood- do not seek treatment in early stages; where ever impairment occurs, your psychological level stays at that stage; many don’t believe something is wrong o Tends to run a chronic course unless treated (poor outcome even when treated) o There are very few studies on the development of personality disorders; mostly theories  Co-morbidity (with other psychological disorders) Rates are High (poorer prognosis)  Gender Bias in Diagnosis o Gender differences may be due to bias of the diagnosing  Cluster A: Paranoid Personality Disorder  Odd people, eccentric  Clinical Features o Pervasive and unjustified mistrust and suspicion  Causes o Biological and psychological contributions are unclear; don’t know why they are so distrustful unless there was a childhood event that contributed to it o Early learning that people and the world are dangerous  Treatment o Very few seek help on their own because they are paranoid; tend to smolder away on their own o Focuses on development of trust, thus needs to be long-term (>1 year); not a great outcome o Cognitive therapy to counter negativistic thinking o No evidence of treatment success  Cluster A: Schizoid Personality Disorder  Clinical Features o Pervasive pattern of detachment from relationships; sit by themselves; don’t relate to people o Limited range of emotions in interpersonal situations; like solitary activities o Normal behavior, beliefs and thought patterns vs. paranoid & schizotypal  Causes o Etiology is unclear  Treatment o Few seek treatment on their own b/c don’t like to interact with others o Focus on the value of interpersonal relationships, empathy, and social skills o Treatment prognosis is generally poor- need to be motivated to get well o Lack good treatment outcome studies  Cluster A: Schizotypal Personality Disorder  Clinical Features o Behavior and dress is odd and unusual o Most are socially isolate and may be highly suspicious of others- may have the feeling seeming in the room vs. schizophrenic who strongly believes there is o Magical thinking, ideas of reference, and illusions are common, but sense they are unreal o Risk for developing schizophrenia is high o Many also meet criteria for major depression  Causes o A phenotype of a schizophrenia genotype? Different expression of a gene o Memory and learning deficits suggest left hemisphere damage; MRI suggest more generalized brain deficits  Treatment o Focus of developing social skills o Address co morbid depression o Medical treatment similar to that used for schizophrenia (antipsychotics) o Treatment prognosis is generally poor  Cluster B: Antisocial Personality Disorder  Clinical Features o Failure to comply with social norms, violation f the right of others, irresponsible, impulsive and deceitful o Lack a conscience, empathy and remorse  Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Disorder  Robert Hare- 20 item Revised Psychopathy Checklist-PCL-R  Cleckley/Hare checklist focuses on personality traits vs. DSM’s focus on behaviors  Low IQ separates those who get in trouble with the law o Olaf (UBC)- criminals who score high on C/H checklist puts in less effort and showed fewer improvements vs. nonpsychopathic criminals  Usually very charming and very smart; charismatic  ASPD, Conduct Disorder, and Early Behavior Problems o Many have early histories of behavioral problems, including conduct disorder (reserved for children and adolescents) o Many come form families with inconsistent parental discipline and support o Families often have histories of criminal, drug abuse and violent behavior o Fig. 12.3 – mellow out when they hit their 40’s, possibly because decrease in testosterone  Genetic and Neurobiological Contributions of Antisocial Personality  Family, Twin and Adoption Studies o Gene-environment interaction involved (diathesis-stress)  Neurobiological Theories o Brain damage- little support for this view o Under-arousal hypothesis- cortical arousal is too low; at a stage of pre-development o Cortical immaturity hypothesis- cerebral cortex is not fully developed o Fearlessness hypothesis- psychopaths fail to respond with fear to danger cues; under react to the threat of punishment o Gene for monoamine Oxidase A on X chromosome (only males)- low levels lead to buildup of neurotransmitters- abused children who have high levels of MAOA expression did not exhibit antisocial behavior; genetic component  Genetic, Neurobiological and Social Contributions of Antisocial Personality o Grays model of behavioral inhibition and activation  Behavioral inhibition system; reward system- could be an imbalance between the 2  Environmental o Inconsistent discipline o Stress (combat vets) o Children traumatized by loved ones may turn off emotions  Integrative Model o Genetic vulnerability, family stress, reinforcement of antisocial behaviors, inconsistent discipline  Treatment of Antisocial Personality  Treatment o Few seek treatment in their own; think there is nothing wrong with them o Poor prognosis even in children o Emphasis on prevention and rehabilitation o Often incarceration is the only viable alternative o Children-parent training; how to set guidelines and be consistent o Juveniles- behavioral and family interventions  Cluster B: Borderline Personality Disorder  Clinical Feature o Unstable moods and relationships o Impulsivity, fear of abandonment, poor self-image, can be charming; not capable of entering into a mature adult relationship o Self-mutilation and suicidal gesture are not uncommon o Most common personality disorder in psychiatric settings o Comorbidity rates are high o May improve without treatment in their 30’s and 40’s  Causes o Runs in the family o Early trauma and abuse  Treatment Options o Highly unlikely to seek treatment; usually end up in treatment because family or friend concern o Few good treatment outcome studies o Antidepressants and antipsychotics provide shot-term relief o Dialectical behavior therapy is the most promising psychosocial approach  Toronto psychiatrist Paul Links and his colleagues- 3 subtypes o 1. Impulsive o 2. Identity Disturbance- un
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 2030A/B

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.