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Human Adjustment 2030--Chapter 13.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2030A/B

Chapter 13 : Schizophrenia and other Psychotic Disorders o Schizophrenia= broad spectrum of cognitive and emotional dysfunctions including delusions and hallucinations, disorganized speech and behaviour and inappropriate emotions o Complex syndrome  disrupts person’s perception, thoughtsm speech and movement—every aspect of daily functioning o Most are unemployed and living in poverty o Effects 1 out of every 100 people at some point Perspectives on Concept of Schizophrenia Early Figures in Diagnosing SChizo o Emil Kraepelin (1899) most enduring definition os schizo o He took several symptoms of insanity :  catatonia- alternating immobility and excitation  hebephrenia- silly, immature emotionality  paranoia- delusions of grandeur or persecution o thought they shared similar features dementia praecox o he also distinguished dementia praecox from manic depressive illness (bipolar disorder) o Eugen Bleuler (1908)  introduced term schizophrenia o Greek work= “split” (skhizen) “mind” (phren) o Belief that associative splitting of basic functions of personality Identifying Symptoms o Number of behaviours that aren’t necessarily shared by all people Clinical Description o Psychotic= usually involves delusions (irrational beliefs) and hallucinations (sensory experiences in absence of external events) o Common misconception= people with schizo are all dangerous and violent o Actually less likely than people who have history of violence but no schizo o Positive Symptoms = more active manifestations like delusions/hallucinations o Negative Symptoms= deficits in normal behaviours like speech/motivation o Disorganized symptoms= rambling speech, erratic behaviour and inappropriate effect o Diagnosis of schizophrenia= 2 or more positive or negative or disorganized symptoms for more than 1 month Positive Symptoms o The more obvious signs of psychosis o 50-70% of ppl with schizo experiences these Delusions o misrepresentation of reality—disorder of thought content or delusion o aka basic characteristics of madness o Delusions of Grandeur ex: believing that he could end starvation for all the world’s children o Delusions of Persecution people are out to get them o Cotard’s Syndrome belief that a part of their body is changing in some impossible way o Capgras Syndrome belief that someone they know has been replaced by a double o Why do delusions persist with contradictory info?—maybe new info isn’t properly integrated o N400 brain wave= linked to integrating new info that’s inconsistent with expectation o People with schizo have smaller brain wave o Theory= delusions may serve adaptive function, gives stronger sense of purpose and meaning in life and less depression Hallucinations o Sensory events without any input from surrounding environment o Can involve any of the senses o Auditory hallucinations= hearing things that aren’t there o Most common form for patients o Tend to experience them more when unoccupied or restricted from sensory input o New research using brain-imaging shows they are actually hearing their own thoughts or voices without knowing the difference o Or abnormal activation of primary auditory complex Negative Syptoms o Indicate absence or insufficiency of normal behaviour o Social withdrawal, apathy, poverty of thought or speech o 25% Avolition o inability to initiate and persist in activities o a.k.a apathy o show little interest in daily functioning like hygiene Alogia o absence of speech o person may respond to questions with short answers almost like they are uninterested in conversation Anhedonia o lack of pleasure o
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