Psychology 2030A/B Lecture Notes - Schizophreniform Disorder, Capgras Delusion, Delusional Disorder

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
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Chapter 13 : Schizophrenia and other Psychotic Disorders
o Schizophrenia= broad spectrum of cognitive and emotional dysfunctions
including delusions and hallucinations, disorganized speech and behaviour and
inappropriate emotions
o Complex syndrome disrupts person’s perception, thoughtsm speech and
movementevery aspect of daily functioning
o Most are unemployed and living in poverty
o Effects 1 out of every 100 people at some point
Perspectives on Concept of Schizophrenia
Early Figures in Diagnosing SChizo
o Emil Kraepelin (1899) most enduring definition os schizo
o He took several symptoms of insanity :
catatonia- alternating immobility and excitation
hebephrenia- silly, immature emotionality
paranoia- delusions of grandeur or persecution
o thought they shared similar features dementia praecox
o he also distinguished dementia praecox from manic depressive illness
(bipolar disorder)
o Eugen Bleuler (1908) introduced term schizophrenia
o Greek work= “split” (skhizen) “mind” (phren)
o Belief that associative splitting of basic functions of personality
Identifying Symptoms
o Number of behaviours that aren’t necessarily shared by all people
Clinical Description
o Psychotic= usually involves delusions (irrational beliefs) and hallucinations
(sensory experiences in absence of external events)
o Common misconception= people with schizo are all dangerous and violent
o Actually less likely than people who have history of violence but no schizo
o Positive Symptoms = more active manifestations like delusions/hallucinations
o Negative Symptoms= deficits in normal behaviours like speech/motivation
o Disorganized symptoms= rambling speech, erratic behaviour and
inappropriate effect
o Diagnosis of schizophrenia= 2 or more positive or negative or disorganized
symptoms for more than 1 month
Positive Symptoms
o The more obvious signs of psychosis
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o 50-70% of ppl with schizo experiences these
Delusions
o misrepresentation of realitydisorder of thought content or delusion
o aka basic characteristics of madness
o Delusions of Grandeur ex: believing that he could end starvation for all the
world’s children
o Delusions of Persecution people are out to get them
o Cotard’s Syndrome belief that a part of their body is changing in some
impossible way
o Capgras Syndrome belief that someone they know has been replaced by a
double
o Why do delusions persist with contradictory info?—maybe new info isn’t
properly integrated
o N400 brain wave= linked to integrating new info that’s inconsistent with
expectation
o People with schizo have smaller brain wave
o Theory= delusions may serve adaptive function, gives stronger sense of purpose
and meaning in life and less depression
Hallucinations
o Sensory events without any input from surrounding environment
o Can involve any of the senses
o Auditory hallucinations= hearing things that aren’t there
o Most common form for patients
o Tend to experience them more when unoccupied or restricted from sensory
input
o New research using brain-imaging shows they are actually hearing their own
thoughts or voices without knowing the difference
o Or abnormal activation of primary auditory complex
Negative Syptoms
o Indicate absence or insufficiency of normal behaviour
o Social withdrawal, apathy, poverty of thought or speech
o 25%
Avolition
o inability to initiate and persist in activities
o a.k.a apathy
o show little interest in daily functioning like hygiene
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