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Psychology 2030A/B

Chapter 1: Abnormal Behavior in Historical Context o Psychological disorder= a 1. psych dysfunction within an individual that’s associated with 2. distress or impaired functioning 3. response that is atypical o Phobia= disorder marked and persistent fear of an object or situation What is a Pychological Disorder? Psychological Dysfunction o Refers to breakdown in cognitive, emotional or behavioural functioning o Just having a dysfunction is not enough to meet crieteria for a psychological disorder Personal Distress o By itself this criterion doesn’t define abnormal behaviour o Its quite normal to be distressed o Ex if someone close to you dies, it is the human condition to feel distress and it is unlikely to change o Most psych disorders are an extreme expression of otherwise normal emotions, behaviours, cognitive processes Atypical or Not Culturally Expect o Important but insufficient to determine abnormality o Many people are far form average in their behaviour but few are considered disorderd o We might call them talented or eccentric ex: movie stars, athletes o In eyes of society: more productive you are the more eccentricities society will tolerate o Another view= violating social norms o Useful iin cultural differences in psych disorders o Ex: to enter a trance state and claim your possessed would point to psych disorder in western culture but not in other cultures o Social standard of normal has been misused o Harmful dysfunction= concept to determine if behaviour is beyond an individuals control o Variations of this approach still used in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual- contains criteria for psych disorders o Most widely accepted definition of normal is used in DSM-IV-TR: describes behaviour, psyc, or biological dysfunctions that are unexpected in their cultural context and associated with distress/impairment/or increased risk of suffering, death, pain. o Useful across all cultures and subcultures in context to that culture o Best we can do is consider how the disease/disorder matches a “typical” profile o Prototype= typical profile for a disease o 1960 Thomas Szasz= his view that mental illness was a myth and we shoudnlt label o argued that theres a diff between diagnosis of physical illness ( measured by blood tests and objective criteria) and their use in mental illness The Science of Psychopathology o psychopathology= scientific study of psyh disorders o field consisting of psychologists, psychiatrists, therapists, counselors o clinical psychologists= Ph.D after 5 yrs of grad school, o instead of PHD sometimes get Psy.D (Doctor of Psychology) more emphasis on clinical practice less on research o regulation of the psych profession is under provinces/territories o Ontario psychologists College of Psychologists of OnatrioRegulated Health Professions Act o Protect public only those who are registered can call themselves psychologists o “psychotherapists”/”therapist”= not regulated by provinces o thus the label of psychologist speaks of training, education o a social worker, a psych and a psychiatrist can technically call themselves “psychotherapists” if provide therapy services o Counselling Psychologists=(Ph.D/Psy.D/Ed.D) study and treat vocational issues by relatively healthy people o Clinical Psychologists= study more severe psychological disorders o Psychiatrists= first earn an M.D in med school then specialize in psychiatry o Investigate the nature and causes of psychological disorders, a bio perspective, make diagnosis and offer treatments o Psychiatric Social Workers= (masters degree) in social work. Collect info relevant to social and family situation of person with disorder, treat disorders focusing on family problems. o Psychiatric Nurses= (masters/Ph.D) specialize in care of treament of patients with psych disorder, usually in hospitals part of a team. o Marriage/Family Therapists/Mental Health Counsellors= (masters degree) and provide clinical services usually under supe
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