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Lecture 7

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Psychology 2030A/B
Michelle Everest

Human Adjustment Chapter 8 November 1/12 Self-presentation Impression management refers to “usually conscious efforts by people to influence how others think of them - Integration: behaving in ways to make oneself likable to others - Self-promotion: accenting your strong points in order to earn respect - Exemplification: demonstrating exemplary behaviour in order to boost your integrity or character - Negative acknowledgement: admitting your flaws - Intimidation: using physical or emotional threats to get what you want from others - Supplication: acting weak or dependent in order to get favours from others Self-monitoring: degree to which people attend to and control the impressions they mae on others - High: more concerned about making favourable impressions - Low: more likely to express their true feelings of attitudes Interpersonal communication is an interactional process in which one person sends a message to another - Involves at least two people - Process involving a series of actions, bi-directional Sender: Encodes message and channels it Receiver: Decodes the message  Each person has a unique history and experience with different types of conversations and interactions. Unique expectations for how the conversation might unfold. Unique understanding about how they interpret other words and intentions within a communication Communicating messages - Verbal language - Non-verbal language: eye contract, voice changes, physical gestures Channel: sensory channel through which the message reaches the receiver (e.g. telephone, internet) Noise: Any stimulus that interferes with accurately expressing or understanding a message Context: environment in which communication takes place Technology and Interpersonal communication - Overlap between work and home - Intrusion of private conversations into public spaces - Absence of non-verbal cues (emoticons developed to help decode the message) Non-verbal communication - Conveys emotions: facial expressions and body posture can convey how we feel without words - Multi-channeled: facial expressions, gestures, eye contact, vocal tone, and body language - Ambiguous: body language can be difficult to interpret - May contradict verbal messages: may say one thing, but our body conveys something different - Culturally-bound: nonverbal signals vary from one culture to another Proxemics – study of personal space Preference for the amount of personal space depends on - Culture - Status - How well you know the person Zone 1: Intimate distance zone (Parents, children, lovers) Zone 2: Personal distance zone (Close friends) Zone 3: Social distance zone (Co-workers, social gatherings, friends) Zone 4: Public distance zone (actors, strangers, important officials) Facial Expressions - Basic emotions - Culture-specific - Gender differences (males showing less expression than women) Eye contact - Duration of eye contact most meaningful - High levels of eye contact associated with credibility and social skills - Also conveys very emotional feelings (long gazes of intimacy) - In a negative context, long gazes are interpreted as “stares” which can make people uncomfortable - Affected by status and gender Kinesics – study of communication through body movements - Open body position(relaxed) will make you appear more approachable whereas a closed body position (arms crossed) may make you appear less approachable - Hand gestures can emphasize your verbal communication Touch - Where and whom we touch can convey status and power - Females touch other females more than males touch other males - Cross-gender touch is interpreted as support by females but as power or sexual interest by men Paralanguage – vocal cues other than the content in the language itself - Variations in vocal emphasis can give different meanings in the same words - Variations in speech can convey emotions (rapid speech may indicate anxiety or excitement) Detecting deception - Greater eye contact to make them appear more honest - Liar often say less, not more - Lairs are not necessarily good story-tellers and include less unusual content - More uncomfortable, tense, and make more negative impressions Nonverbal Sensitivity – ability to accurately encode (express) and decode (understand) nonverbal cues - Can always be improved - Women tend to be better encoders & decoders (may be more motivated/interested in decoding) Conversation skills: 5 steps for making successful small tal 1. Indicate you are open to conversation by commenting on your surroundings 2. Introduce yourself 3. Select a topic others can relate to 4. Keep
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