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Lecture 2

Psychology 2030A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Generalised Tonic-Clonic Seizure, Mendelian Inheritance, Random Assignment


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2030A/B
Professor
David Vollick
Lecture
2

Page:
of 6
Research at the Cellular Level
-neuroanatomy
-anatomy = structure
-neuro = nerve
-two main parts of the nervous system
-CNS- brain and spinal cord
-PNS (peripheral nervous system)- aka somatic nervous system…rest of the body
-Autonomic Nervous System
-Parasympathetic- returns everything to normal
-Sympathetic- flight or fight (pupils dilate/ constrict)
-Translational research
-picture in textbook
-neurotransmitters
-axon
-dendrites
-…
The structure of the Brain
-brain stem (controls fundamental biological function- breathing, BP)---> basic stuff
-medulla, pons, and cerebellum (regulate breathing, heart beat and motor control)
-damage to cerebellum = can't move, problem with balance
-midbrain (coordinates sensory information and movement)
-makes you move
-thalamus (relay station, directing nerve signals that carry sensory information to the
cortex)
-touch a hot stove
-direct nerve signals to the different parts of the cortex
-hypothalamus (homeostasis)
-controls BP
-BP up, hypothalamus kicks in and bring the BP down
-picture in the textbook
-forebrain- cerebral cortex plus
-limbic system
-amygdala, the cingulate gyrus, and the hippocampus- deals primarily with
emotions and impulses
-->damage then can't remember long term, only short term
-hippocampus- memory formation-linked with memory deficits
-basal ganglia
-caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and
subthalamic nucleus- thought to inhibit movement
-->fine motion
-picture in the textbook
-pituitary (aka master gland)- release hormones
Memory
-Known as H.M. (Henry M)
-age 16 developed grand mal seizures (epilepsy)
-abnormal firing in the brain
-L affected transfer to the R so the R is also affected
-surgery to remove hippocampus
-could not save new long-term memories
-able to recall long-term memories that occurred before the surgery
-STM (short term memory) is not dependent on functioning hippocampus
-LTM must go through the hippocampus to be stored
-STM --> hippocampus-->LTM (stored)
The Cerebral Cortex and Its Lobes
-higher cognitive functioning, including reasoning, abstract thought, perception of time, and
creativity
-cognitive = thinking
-two hemisphere:
-left side- language and cognitive functioning and tends to process information in a more
linear and logical manner
-in most right handed people
-right side- processes the world in a holistic manner, spatial context, creativity, imagery,
and intuition
-in most left handed people
-each consists of four lobes: temporal (front), parietal (side), occipital (back- vision), and frontal
(
Neuroanatamy
-temporal lobe- auditory and verbal information, labeling of objects and verbal memory
-parietal lobe- integrates sensory information from various sources and may be involves with
visuospatial processing
-occipital lobe- center of visual processing
-frontal lobe- reasoning impulse control, judgment, language, memory, motor functioning
problem solving, and sexual and social behavior
-corpus callosum- allows both hemispheres to communicate
*Translational research- focus on communication between science and apply it to clinical
research
-picture in the textbook
The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
-sensory-somatic nervous system- cranial nerves which control sensation and muscle
movement
-autonomic nervous system- sympathetic & parasympathetic nervous systems
-SNS control involuntary movements (skin), activates the body, and creates a bodily
state of arousal that could indicate the presence of stress of anxiety
-PNS returns the body functioning to resting levels
The Endocrine System
-picture in the text
Neuroimaging
-taking images of the brain
-neuroanatomy (the brain structure)
-CT or CAT scans (computerized axial tomography)- radioactive dyes, x-rays)
-shows lesions, stroke
-MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)- radiofrequency waves and magnetic fields
-other technology- neurophysiology
-->physiology of the brain
-->functioning of the brain
-Positron Emission Tomography (PET scan)
-functioning of the brain
-Functional MRI (fMRI)
-functioning of the brain
-newest ~20 years
Genetics
-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
-genes
-sex chromosomes
-influence of genes on characteristics
-height, eye color, various diseases
-personality
-attitudes
-abnormal behavior
-picture in the textbook
-complex trait
-laws of segregation
-dominant + recessive
-dominant (brown), recessive (blue)
-= brown eyes