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Lecture 2

Week 2- Chapters 1 + 2.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2030A/B
David Vollick

Research at the Cellular Level -neuroanatomy -anatomy = structure -neuro = nerve -two main parts of the nervous system -CNS- brain and spinal cord -PNS (peripheral nervous system)- aka somatic nervous system…rest of the body -Autonomic Nervous System -Parasympathetic- returns everything to normal -Sympathetic- flight or fight (pupils dilate/ constrict) -Translational research -picture in textbook -neurotransmitters -axon -dendrites -… The structure of the Brain -brain stem (controls fundamental biological function- breathing, BP)---> basic stuff -medulla, pons, and cerebellum (regulate breathing, heart beat and motor control) -damage to cerebellum = can't move, problem with balance -midbrain (coordinates sensory information and movement) -makes you move -thalamus (relay station, directing nerve signals that carry sensory information to the cortex) -touch a hot stove -direct nerve signals to the different parts of the cortex -hypothalamus (homeostasis) -controls BP -BP up, hypothalamus kicks in and bring the BP down -picture in the textbook -forebrain- cerebral cortex plus -limbic system -amygdala, the cingulate gyrus, and the hippocampus- deals primarily with emotions and impulses -->damage then can't remember long term, only short term -hippocampus- memory formation-linked with memory deficits -basal ganglia -caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus- thought to inhibit movement -->fine motion -picture in the textbook -pituitary (aka master gland)- release hormones Memory -Known as H.M. (Henry M) -age 16 developed grand mal seizures (epilepsy) -abnormal firing in the brain -L affected transfer to the R so the R is also affected -surgery to remove hippocampus -could not save new long-term memories -able to recall long-term memories that occurred before the surgery -STM (short term memory) is not dependent on functioning hippocampus -LTM must go through the hippocampus to be stored -STM --> hippocampus-->LTM (stored) The Cerebral Cortex and Its Lobes… -higher cognitive functioning, including reasoning, abstract thought, perception of time, and creativity -cognitive = thinking -two hemisphere: -left side- language and cognitive functioning and tends to process information in a more linear and logical manner -in most right handed people -right side- processes the world in a holistic manner, spatial context, creativity, imagery, and intuition -in most left handed people -each consists of four lobes: temporal (front), parietal (side), occipital (back- vision), and frontal ( Neuroanatamy -temporal lobe- auditory and verbal information, labeling of objects and verbal memory -parietal lobe- integrates sensory information from various sources and may be involves with visuospatial processing -occipital lobe- center of visual processing -frontal lobe- reasoning impulse control, judgment, language, memory, motor functioning problem solving, and sexual and social behavior -corpus callosum- allows both hemispheres to communicate *Translational research- focus on communication between science and apply it to clinical research -picture in the textbook The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) -sensory-somatic nervous system- cranial nerves which control sensation and muscle movement -autonomic nervous system- sympathetic & parasympathetic nervous systems -SNS control involuntary movements (skin), activates the body, and creates a bodily state of arousal that could indicate the presence of stress of anxiety -PNS returns the body functioning to resting levels The Endocrine System -picture in the text Neuroimaging -taking images of the brain -neuroanatomy (the brain structure) -CT or CAT scans (computerized axial tomography)- radioactive dyes, x-rays) -shows lesions, stroke -MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)- radiofrequency waves and magnetic fields -other technology- neurophysiology -->physiology of the brain -->functioning of the brain -Positron Emission Tomography (PET scan) -functioning of the brain -Functional MRI (fMRI) -functioning of the brain -newest ~20 years Genetics -deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) -genes -sex chromosomes -influence of genes on characteristics -height, eye color, various diseases -personality
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