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Lecture 3

Psychology 2030A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Comprehensive School, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Dsm-5


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2030A/B
Professor
David Vollick
Lecture
3

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Chapter 3- Assessment and Diagnosis
Clinical Assessment
-Gathering information about a person and his/her environment to make decisions about the
nature, status, and treatment of psychological problems
-->treatments different depending on situation
-->more information the better
->-from family, friends, schools
-->the better the assessment going to be
-begins with a set of referral question that determine goals of assessment
-->determine goals or assessment
-selection of appropriate psychological tests and measurements
-->choose the ones that answers the referral questions (tests and measurements)
-->when did it start, how often, consent
Goals of Assessment
Differential diagnosis is a process in which a clinician weighs how likely it is that a person has a
diagnosis instead of another
-What assessment procedures and instruments to administer
-tailoring an assessment to types of symptoms, age, and medical status
-->up to a certain age but after it become pathological
-->what to take into account from the referral
-screening (identify psychological problems or predict the risk for future problems)
-->what is the risk of redeveloping
-diagnosis (identification of illness)
-->come up with a conclusion (from our knowledge)
-treatments plan (individual's plan of care to meet mental health needs)
-->antidepressants, psychological therapy (in referral question)
-outcome evaluation
-->what do I think that this patient will be like n time from now
How to Find a Good Screening Tool
Figure 3.1 Evaluating a Screening Tool for Depression (in textbook)
Cases of Misdiagnosis
-Deafness vs. Intellectual Disability
-->patient must understand what you are asking before giving the test
-Epilepsy vs. Schizophrenia
-->mimic the symptoms of schizophrenia
-Medication Reaction vs. Depression
-->what kind of medication are they on
-->Prozac- in adolescent can make them depression and suicidal
-Brain tumor vs. Anorexia Nervosa
-->brain tumor can cause a lot of symptoms (mMRI)
-Impact of clinical significance
-->not just statistical

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-->what does it mean clinically
-->is the person really depressed, how significant is it
And the Usual Properties of Assessment Instruments Are…
-Standardization
-->all done the same way, all say the same thing, and act the same way
-->when scoring it, it's done the same way
-->reliability
-->that the patient is getting cues from me and also from you
-->everything is standardized
-Normative comparison
-->you get and I get
-->take your age group and see how you fit in with the people your age
-->ex. intelligence (IQ)
-Self-referent comparisons
-->see the results of the test prior to performance
-->helps to trace the severity of the symptoms overtime
-->compare scores of the past
-Reliability
-->comparison overtime
-->test retest reliability.. Results are the time even if you do it many times
-test-retest reliability
-interrater agreement
-all come up with the same agreement/ conclusion
-Validity
-construct (measure what it's supposed to do- come up with the same conclusion), criterion
(how well does it correlate with something- iq and success), concurrent (same variable at
the same time), predictive
-->is it measuring what you want it to measure
Assessing Abnormality Using the Normal Curve
Figure 3.2 The Normal Curve
-normal IQ 100
Developmental and Cultural Considerations
-Age
-People involved in testing- age, developmental status
-->elderly with Dementia (not sure what is going on)
-Nature of test chosen
-"Culturally Fair"
-->understand/ language well
-->things with no cultural aspects
-->ex. how many senate groups are there in the U.S
Assessment Instruments
-Self-report measures (ask patients to evaluate their own symptoms)
-->ask questions from family, friends
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